Biology ch 6-10

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Biology ch 6-10
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2009-11-07 14:24:05
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Biology
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  1. useful for studying surface structures, great depth of field resulting in image that are 3d
    scanning electron microscope
  2. visible light passes through the specimen and then through glass lenses
    light microscope
  3. region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane. All the material within the plasma membrane of a prokaryotic cell.
    Cytoplasm
  4. build a cell's proteins. cell types that synthesize large quantities of proteins have large number of ? and prominent nucleoli.
    Ribosomes
  5. Includes the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and the plasma membrane.
    Endomembrane system
  6. digestive compartments. a membrane-bound sac of hydrolytic enzymes that an animal cell uses to digest macromolecules.
    Lysosomes
  7. change energy from one form to another. organelles that convert energy to forms that cells can use for work
    mitochondria and chloroplasts
  8. sites of cellular respiration, generating atp from the catabolism of sugars, fats, and other fuels in the presence of oxygen.
    mitochondria
  9. found in plants and algae, are the sites of photosynthesis; convert solar energy to chemical energy and synthesize new organic compounds-sugars from co2 and h2o.
    chloroplasts
  10. contents of the chloroplast are seperated from the cytosol by an envelope consisting of two membranes separated by a narrow inter membrane space. inside the innermost membrane is a fluid-filled space. contains DNA, ribosomes, and enzymes
    Stroma
  11. flattened sacs that play a crtitical role in converting light to chemical energy. stacked like poker chips into grana
    Thylakoids
  12. Network of fibers that organizes structures and activities in the cell. A network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm. organizes the structures and activities of the cell provides support, motility, and regulation, provides mechanical support and maintains cell shape, provides anchorage for many organelles and cytosolic enzymes.
    Cytoskeleton
  13. The 3 main types of fibers making up the cytoskeleton
    Microtubules, Microfilaments, and Intermediate Filaments
  14. The passage of water through the membrane can be greatly facilitated by channel proteins
    Aquaporins
  15. The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane; it requires no energy from the cell to make it happen
    Passive Transport
  16. The passive movement of molecules down their concentration gradient via transport proteins
    Facilitated diffusion
  17. Uses energy to move solutes against thier gradients. requires cell to expend metabolic energy, enables cell to maintain internal concentrations of small molecules that would otherwise diffuse across the membrane
    Active transport
  18. Voltage across the membrane; ranges from -50 to -200mV
    Membrane Potential
  19. transport vesicle budded from the golgi apparatus is moved by the cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane.
    Exocytosis
  20. A cell brings in macromolecules and particulate matter by forming new vesicles from the plasma membrane. A small area of the plasma membrane sinks inward to form a pocket. As the pocket deepens, it pinches in to form a vesicle containing the material that had been outside the cell.
    Endocytosis
  21. pathways release energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds. A major pathway of ? is cellular respiration, in which the sugar glucose is broken down in the presence of oxygen to carbon dioxide and water.
    Catabolic
  22. study of how organisms manage their energy resources.
    Bioenergetics
  23. Energy can be transfered and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed. AKA the principle of conservation of energy. Plants do not produce energy; they transform light energy to chemical energy. During every transfer of transformation of energy, some energy is converted to heat, which is the energy associated with the random movement of atoms and molecules creating entropy.
    The first law of Thermodynamics
  24. Facts
    A system can use heat to do work only when there is a temperature difference that results in heat flowing from a warmer location to a cooler one. If temperature is uniform, as in a living cell, heat can only be used to warm the organism. Energy transfers and transformations make the universe more disordered due to the loss of usable energy
  25. mosaics of structure and function; a collage of different proteins embedded in the fluid matrix of the lipid bilayer. proteins determine most of the ?'s specific functions.
    Membrane
  26. membrane-surface molecules thought to be most important as cells recognize each other
    Oligoproteins
  27. Important for cell-to-cell recognition; usually branched oligosaccharides with fewer than 15 sugar units. they may be covalently bonded to lipids, forming glycolipids or more commonly to proteins, forming glycoproteins.
    membrane carbohydrates
  28. fact
    The cell absorbs oxygen and expels carbon dioxide
  29. Fact
    Hydrophobic molecules, such as hydrocarbons, CO2 and O2 can dissolve in the lipid bilayer and cross easily.
  30. Fact
    Each transport protein is specific as to the substances that it will translocate. For example, the glucose transport protein in the liver will carry glucose into the cell but will not transport fructose, it's structural isomer.
  31. Fact
    Some transport proteins do not provide channels but appear to actually translocate the solute binding site and solute across the membrane as the transport protein changes shape.
  32. quantity used as a measure of disorder or randomness. The more random a collection of matter, the greater it's ?; The second law of thermodynamics states that every energy transfer or transformation increases the ? of the universe
    Entropy
  33. proceeds with a net release of free energy; change in energy is negative
    Exergonic Reaction
  34. Absorbs free energy from its surroundings; stores energy in molecules; change in energy is positive
    Endergonic Reaction
  35. In the cell, the energy from the hydrolysis of ATP is directly coupled to endergonic processes by the transfer of the phosphate group to another molecule. This recipient molecule is...
    Phosphorylated
  36. A chemical agent that speeds up the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
    Catalyst
  37. Fact
    A spark plug provides the energy to energize a gasoline-oxygen mixture and cause combustion. Without that activation energy, the hydrocarbons of gasoline are too stable to react with oxygen. Proteins, DNA, and other complex organic molecules are rich in free energy. Their hydrolysis is spontaneous, with the release of large amounts of energy.
  38. Fact
    Enzymes use a variety of mechanisms to lower activation energy and speed up a reaction
  39. nonprotein helpers for catalytic activity; bind permanently or reversibly to the enzyme; inorganic ? include zinc, iron, and copper.
    Cofactors
  40. organic cofactors are called...; many vitamis are...
    Coenzymes
  41. feedback inhibition in which an early step in metabolic pathway is switched off by the parthways final product. The product acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme in the pathway
    Method of Metabolic Control
  42. Cellular Respiration (Facts)
    • Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins can all be used as the fuel, but it is most useful to consider glucose.
    • c6h12o6+6co2+6h2o+energy(ATP+heat)
  43. Reactions that result in the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another;
    oxidation-reduction reactions, or redox reactions
  44. the loss of electrons
    oxidation
  45. the addition of electrons is; each oxygen atom has partially "gained" electrons, and so the oxygen molecule has been reduced.
    reduction
  46. Fact
    • X, the electron donor, is the reducing agent and reduces Y
    • Y, the electron recipient, is the oxidizing agent and oxidizes X; redox reactions require both donor and acceptor
  47. Fact
    For each molecule of glucose degraded to carbon dioxide and water by respiration, the cell makes up to 38 ATP, each with 7.3 kcal/mol of free energy.
  48. net yeild is 2ATP and 2NADH per glucose; no CO2 is produced; it can occur whether o2 is present or not.
    Glycolysis
  49. completes the energy-yeilding oxidation of organic molecules. Ten molecules of CO2 would be produced by five turns (2 molecules for a single cycle)
    Citric Acid Cycle
  50. Atp systhase, scientists have learned how the flow of h+ through large enzyme powers atp generation. Creating the H+ gradient is the functions of the electron transport chain. this coupling of the redox reactions of the electron transport chain to atp synthesis; an energy coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of an H+ gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work.
    Chemiosmosis
  51. How efficient is respiration in generating atp?
    Complete oxidation of glucose releases 686kcal/mol. Phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP requires at least 7.3kcal/mol. Efficiency of respiration is 7.3kcal/mol times 38 ATP/glucose divided by 686kcal/mol glucose, which equals 0.4 or 40%. Approximately 60% of the energy from glucose is lost as heat.
  52. enables some cells to produce ATP without the use of oxygen; provides mechanism by which some cells can oxidize organic fuel and generate ATP without the use of oxygen. Anaerobic catabolism of sugars can occur...
    Fermentation
  53. Fact
    A gram of fat oxides by respiration generates twice as much ATP as a gram of carbohydrate
  54. an allosteric enzyme with receptor sites for specific inhibitors and activators. It is inhibited by ATP and stimulated by AMP (derived from ADP)
    Phosphofructokinase
  55. produce their organic molecules from co2 and other inorganic raw materials obtained from the environment.
    Autotrophs
  56. Use light as a source of energy to synthesize organic compounds
    Photoautotrophs
  57. harvest energy from oxidizing inorganic substances, e.g sulfur and ammonia.; unique to prokaryotes
    Chemoautotrophs
  58. live on organic compunds produced by other organisms; consumers of the biosphere
    Heterotrophs
  59. converts light energy to the chemical energy of food.
    Photosynthesis
  60. all green parts of a plant; the leaves are the major site of photosynthesis for most plants
    Chloroplasts
  61. the green pigment in the chloroplasts; plays an important role in the absorption of light energy during photosynthesis
    chlorophyll
  62. Fact
    Each photosystem reaction center chlorophyll and primary electron acceptor surrounded by an antenna complex-functions in the choloroplast as a light-harvesting unit.
  63. has a reaction center chlorophyll a that has an absorption peak at 700 nm wavelength.
    Photosystem I
  64. has a reaction center chlorophyll b has an absorption peak at 680nm; absorbs a photon of light
    Photosystem II
  65. Chloroplasts and mitochondria generate ATP by the same mechanism; in both organelles, an electron transport chain pumps protons across a membrane as electrons are passed along a series of increasingly electronegative carriers. This transforms redox energy to a proton-motive force in the form of an h+ gradient across the membrane
    Chemiosmosis
  66. uses ATP and NADPH to convert CO2 to sugar; the actual product of the cycle is not glucose but a three carbon sugar, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (g3p). Each turn fixes one carbon. For the net synthesis of one g3p molecule, the cycle must take place three times, fixing three molecules of CO2.
    Calvin Cycle
  67. The Calvin Cycle has three phases
    • Phase 1: Carbon Fixation
    • Phase 2: Reduction
    • Phase 3: Regeneration

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