immuno 20-21.txt

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immuno 20-21.txt
2011-04-28 17:14:03

immuno 20-21
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  1. T/F hypersensitivities are caused by antigens?
    F, they are caused by the immune response and the products released
  2. What is an Atopic individual? Non-atopic individual?
    • Atopic: produce IgE, Type I hypersensitivity
    • Non-Atopic: produce IgG, IgA or don't respond type I
  3. Name and list three groups of molecules released form Mast Cells
    • 1) Preformed: histamine, heparin, protease, TNF-alpha
    • 2) Arachidonic acid synthesis: Prostaglandins, leukotrienese
    • 3) DNA synthesis: Cytokines
  4. Three histamine functions
    • 1) smooth muscle contraction
    • 2) vascular vasodilation / permeability
    • 3) mucous secretions
  5. Which Mast cell molecule is similar to histamine but more potent?
    • Leukotrienes:
    • 1) contraction
    • 2) vasodilation / permeability
    • 3) mucous secretions
  6. What areas contract when Histamine releases granules?
    Ileum, bronchi & bronchioles, uterus
  7. What are the two types of antihistamines and their Rxns?
    • First generation: enter brain = sleepiness
    • Second generation: do not enter brain
    • ** stop some hypersensitivity but not completely since there are other players involved
  8. Three functions of prostaglandins
    • Vasodilation
    • bronchoconstriction
    • Neutrophil / eiosinophil chemotaxis
  9. What is the function of IL-4 and TNF-alpha?
    • IL-4: activate IgE
    • TNF-alpha: Activate Neutrophils
  10. What are the three disadvantages to skin testing allergies?
    • 1) come in contact with new allergen
    • 2) cause tissue damage via late hypersensitivity
    • 3) anaphylactic shock
  11. How do immunotherapy shots function?
    • IgE production inhibited and replaced by IgG production
    • IgG can bind allergen and inhibit mast cell binding
  12. What are the three types of Type II rxns?
    • Complement: Phago and Opso by Macros
    • ADCC: NK cells
    • Antireceptor Antibodies: antibodies bind receptors to inhibit binding
  13. What mediates a Delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction?
    IgG for too many transfusions
  14. What is Drug-induced hemolytic anemia?
    Type II

    When drugs bind RBCs and they are then tagged to be destroyed by IgG or IgM
  15. What is Drug-induced thrombocytopenia?
    Type II

    • Drugs bind Platelets and they are tagged to be
    • destroyed by IgG or IgM
  16. What is Arthus Reaction?
    • Type III
    • When antigen is injected too many times in one area
    • Immune complexes deposit and cause necrosis
  17. What is serum sickness?
    • Type III
    • Reaction to antivenom / antitoxin
  18. Why do some allergens cause Th1 activation?
    • Toll like receptors will bind to APC and cause release of IL-12
    • IL-12 activates Th1 cells
  19. What is the tuberculin rxn?
    • From intradermal Tb test
    • testing availability of Th1 cells
    • In aids patients, bump will stay b/c of immunocompromised state
  20. What is granuloma formation?
    • Type IV
    • Hypersensitivity does not go away and macrophages come together with Th1 cells to form a granuloma
    • This traps the bacteria but creates a mass
  21. What is the Patch Test?
    • Type IV
    • Patches with irritants placed on back that should elicit a skin response via Th1