Mitosis and Meiosis
Card Set Information
Mitosis and Meiosis
mitosis meiosis biology
Function of Mitosis
asexual reproduction, growth, create two identical daughter cells
genetic material of cells stored in the nucleus
What are chromosomes made of?
How many chromosomes do humans have?
resting and growing
duplicate all chromosomes
nuclear envelope fragments, mitotic spindle starts to form
microtubule structure that physically separates the chromosomes
all chromosomes line up down the middle
duplicated chromosomes are pulled apart
nuclear envelopes form around separated sets of chromosomes and cleavage furrow forms
cell is physically divided into two
homologous chromosomes pair up (synapse) and then swap info (crossing over)
homologous pairs line up side by side along the metaphase plate
homologous pairs separate
nuclear envelopes begin to form around each set of chromosomes and the cleavage furrow forms
cell is physically pulled apart into two
How many cells are at the end of Mitosis?
How many cells are at the end of Meiosis?
After a cell is split into two during Meiosis, what happens next?
They split again, but like Mitosis
little button in the middle of a chromosome
stuff inside a long part of a chromosome
What does P53 do?
stop a cell division at G1 when DNA is damage, attempts repair, and destroys if can't be repaired.
uncontrolled cell growth (too much mitosis), form tumors, and undergo metastasis (spreading of cells)
mutated DNA that should normally control the cell cycle
Somatic cells = _____ cells
Mitosis: ______ cells
Meiosis: ______ cells
: body cells
: sex cells
Pairs 1-22: ______
Pair 23: _______
: sex chromosomes
have info about body traits
similar chromosomes (one from each parent) that have info about the same trait at the same location
Picture of chromosome pairs
Diploid cells have ___ sets of chromosomes and Haploid cells have ___ sets of chromosomes.
body cell (46 chromosomes)
sex cells (23 chromosomes)
Function of Meiosis:
sexual reproduction and produce 4 diverse gametes
3 ways to have genetic diversity
exchange of genetic material between homologous pairs
homologous pairs can line up and separate in a random manner
when gametes fuse
chromosomes fail to separate correctly
cells have too many or too few chromosomes
diploid individual has only one of a type of chromosome
an individual has three of a type of chromosome