Nutrition and Digestive System

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  1. 2 types of organisms
    • 1. Heterotroph: Consume source for food
    • 2. Autotroph: Photosynthesis (plants)
  2. 4 types of animals
    • 1. Herbivore: Eat plants
    • 2. Carnivore: Eat Meat
    • 3. Omnivore: eat plant and meat
    • 4. Mechanism---4 types
  3. 4 types of Mechanisms
    • Suspension- particles in water
    • Substitute feeders- eat through food source (mouths)
    • Fluid feeders- sucking feeders (mosquitos)
    • Bulk Feeders- large pieces of food
  4. "Processing Food" steps
    • Ingestion- act of eating
    • Digestion- breaking down large particles into small substances
    • Absorption- absorb small molecules into blood vessels
    • Elimination
  5. Mechanical digestion
    "physically" breaking substance
  6. Chemical Digestion
    Using enzymes, amyalase
  7. Mouth
    salivary glands, secretes amyalase
  8. Alimentary Canal
    tube beginning at mouth and ending at anus
  9. Esophagus
    section of tube connecting mouth to stomach. Contains "sphincter" which is a valve that regulates passage
  10. Stomach
    • sac-like structure that is highly full with gastric juices.
    • acid reflex- heartburn
    • GERD- destruction of asaphagus lining
    • Ulcers- open sores of stomach where acid breaking lining of stomach (caused by bacteria and regulated by antibiotics)
  11. Small Intestines
    digestion ends and absorption begins
  12. Large intestine
    • "Colon" absorbs water
    • diarrhea- virus/bacteria from poor water absorption
    • constipation- feces moving too slowly form too much water absorption.
  13. Rectum
    • Storage for feces
    • Anus- opening that allows feces to exit
  14. Accessory Glands
    • Parts of digestive system where food does not touch!
    • a. pancreas- produces hormones and enzymes (insulin)
    • b. liver- produces bile to break down insoluble fats and proteins for blood.
    • c. Gallbladder- stores bile
    • d. appendix
  15. Basic Needs of Nutrition
    • a. Fule source
    • b. Essential nutrients
    • c. Organic molecules
  16. Vitamins (definition)
    Organic minerals
  17. Water soluble vitamins
    • Those that are broken down in water environments
    • 1. Vitamin B- helps enzymes
    • 2. Vitamin C- used bones
  18. Fat Soluble vitamins
    • Excess is absorbed and stored
    • 1. Vitamin A- visual pigments
    • 2. Vitamin D- helps absorb Ca and P
    • 3. Vitamin E- antioxidant
    • 4. Vitamin K- blood clotting
  19. Minerals
    • inorganic nutrients
    • 1. Calcium- bone formation
    • 2. Phosphers- nucleic acids
    • 3. Sodium- H20 balance
    • 4. Iron- Hemoglobin (blood)
  20. Overnourishment (def and causes)
    • Consume more energy than use
    • Causes:
    • 1. Availability of fattening food
    • 2. Larger portion
    • 3. Genetics: lepkin- hormone produced by fat tissue
  21. Adipose Tissue and Leptin reaction
    Adipose Tissue increase- Leptin increases- cues brain to suppress appetite

    Adipose Tissue decrease- Leptin decreases- cues brain to eat
  22. Cholesterol
    • Travels via blood stream as lippoproteins
    • a) LDL's (Low density lippoproteins)
    • - block blood vessels--heart attack
    • -high blood pressure
    • -saturated fats

    • b) HDL's (High density lippoproteins)
    • -decreased blockage of blood vessels
    • -decreased blood pressure
    • -unsaturated fats
Card Set:
Nutrition and Digestive System
2011-04-29 00:56:28
biology digestive system

Nutrition and Digestion System
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