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Naturalistic Observation
A research technique in which the researcher simply observes and describes behavior

Correlational Approach
A research technique in which the researcher determines whether variables are related without manipulating the variables

Independent Variable
A variable under the control of the experimenter that may effect the dependent variable in a reliable fashion.

Dependent Variable
The variable being examined by the researcher. It may or may not be effected by the IV

Between Subjects Design
An experimental design in which each subjects is randomly assigned to only one of the treatment conditions

Within Subjects Design
An experimental design where all subjects receive all treatment conditions. Also called a repeated measures design

Type I Error
An error of statistical inference when the null hypothesis is rejected when it is true. This is an error of "seeing too much in the data."

Type II Error
An error of statistical inference when the null hypothesis is retained when it is false. This is an error of "not seeing enough in the data."

Confound
Variables not under the control of the experimenter that vary systematically with the independent variable

Factorial Design
A research design with more than one IV in which every IV level is present at all levels of the other IVs

Nuisance Variables
any variable other than the IV that affects the DV

Floor and Ceiling Effects
 Floor  The values of the DV are so low they are not affected by the IV
 Ceiling  The values of the DV are so high they are not affected by the IV

Main Effect
The effect of the change in level of one factor in a factorial experiment measured independently of other variables.

Response Acquiescence effect
The tendency of an interviewee to agree with the questioner.

Random & Fixed Factors
 Random  An IV whose levels were chosen randomly from a population of possible values
 Fixed  An IV whose levels were chosen nonrandomly

Theory
Hypothesis
 Theory  A set of propositions which summarise, organise, and explain a variety of known facts
 Hypothesis  A supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation.


