Biological: study of evolution through the fossil record and contemporary studies
Cultural: study of culture of contemporary peoples
Linguistics: study of language in realtion to people
Archaeology: study of material and written record
Who was the American father of Anthropology?
Franz Boaz (1858 -1942) at Columbia University, 1896
What is the Modern Synthetic Theory?
Random mutation that are beneficial become more prevalent and lead to evolution of the species
What are the four evolutionary processes? How do they affect gene frequency?
Gene Flow: Increases freq within a population, decreases freq between
Genetic drift: decreases freq within a population, increases between
Natural selection: increases or decreases
What is uniformitarianism?
Theory by Sir Charles Lyell, proposes that processes occur gradually
against Cuvier's catastrophism
What is the theory of Inheritance of Aqcuired Characterics?
By Lamarck, first theory for organic evolution
living things biologically adapt to their environments and pass on these acquired traits to their offspring via "subtle fluids"
Use it or lose it
Survival of the fittest
What did Gregor Mendell discover?
Principle of segregation: an individual gets one half of an allele from each parent
dominant vs recessive
What is the oldest common ancestor between hominids and humans?
Australopethicus africanus (~3-7 mya)
"Lucy" "Taung Child"
foramen magnum is beneath the skull
small cranial capacity
gracile (not robust)
no evidence of tool making
distintive dentition (molars)
What distinguishes hominids from primates?
The first hominid to use tools?
Homo habilis "handy man"
Oldowan tools (crude cobbles with flakes chipped out)
The first hominid to migrate out of Africa?
extensive tool making (Aecheulean), possible hunting
most likely could not speak (lack of thoracic canal)
Why is Homo neanderthalensis different from Homo sapiens?
shorter and more robustly built
adapted for cold weather and more physical lifestyle
biological evolution vs cultural evolution
sloping foreheads, elongated braincases, robust faces, continuous browridges, occipital bun
Mousterian tools (flakes produced by Levallois technique)
What are the different stone tool traditions?
Oldowan: crude cobble with flakes chipped out (2-2.5 mya)
Aecheulean: larger, more sophisticated, bifaces, cores (1-1.5 mya)
Mousterian: flakes produced by Levallois technique (200,000-40,000 ya)
Aurignacian: made from flakes, mainly blades and composite tools, H. sapiens (40,000-12,000 ya)
Clovis Point: composite tools used as projectile points (18,000-12,000 ya)
Relative dating vs chronometric dating?
Relative: age by comparison to other objects
Chronometric: gives precise date
What are some relative dating techniques?
Stratigraphy: study of the sequence of geologic strata deposited by wind/water
Contextual seriation: age by comparison of pottery styles and complexity
What are some chronometric dating techniques?
Potassium-Argon dating: 100,000-billions of years; dates volcanic ash
Radio-carbon dating: ~50,000yo, organic specimens
Dendrochronology: present - 8,000yo, climate reconstruction and structure age
What are the three approaches to cultural anthropology?
Positivism: the traditional approach based on the natural sciences that believes there is a reality that can be known and understood through a single, appropriate set of scientific methods; focuses on material items that can be observed using our five senses
Reflexive: means thinking critically about the way one thinks, reflecting on one’s own experience and taking ethical or political factors into account
Dialectic Fieldwork: the process of building a bridge of understanding between anthropologists and informants so that each begins to understand the other
Define the following archaeological terms:
site: a place where material remains of past human activities
Artifacts: objects that have been deliberately and intelligently created by human activity
Features: the non-portable material remains of the past such as structures, pits, etc.
matrix: the depositional environment (sand, clay, and silt) in which artifacts and features are found
assemblage: consists of the artifacts and structures from a particular site from the same time and place
survey: a physical examination of a geographical area in which promising sites may be found; usually a preliminary step
Excavation: the systematic uncovering of archaeological remains by removing soil, dirt and other debris
Sampling: strategically and statistically selecting portions of a site for excavation
What are subsistence strategies?
Different ways in which different people from different time periods and cultures produce food to meet their needs
Small dcale foragers
What are the four ways societies can be organized?
Band: less than 50 people, foragers, egalitarian
Tribe: bigger than a band, farmers or herders, generally egalitarian but may have a chief with more prestige
Chiefdom: larger than a tribe, socially stratified society, chief and family members enjoy extra priveleges
State: political economic ideological entity, stratified society, government and social works/services, craft production, writing
Empire: when one state takes over another
What period does domestication mark?
Neolithic or New Stone Age (10,300 ya)
ended Pleistocene (2.5mya - 11,000ya) aka Ice Age
What was the first animal to be domesticated?
What are the four types of plant domestication?
Wild plant-food procurement: intereference with wild plant growth by burning or foraging
Wild plant-food production: maintaining wild plant production by cutting, transporting, or modifying soil
Cultivation: deliberately clearing land, planting seeds, and transforming vegetation composition and structure
Agriculture: establishing agroecosystems and fully domesticated plants
What are the six types of animal domestication?
Random hunting: hunters kill animals as they find them; no attempt to control
Controlled hunting: select certain individuals for harvesting (ex young males) to protect population
Herd following: hunters migrate with herds to keep harvesting
Loose herding: animals are controlled and selectively bred but still allowed to migrate to seasonal pastures
Close herding: herders move constantly with herd or confine to pasture
Factory farming: human involvement in every part of life (feedlots)