clin path parasites

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clin path parasites
2011-04-30 11:56:30
clin path parasites

clin path parasites
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  1. parasitology
    the study of parasites and parasitism
  2. symbiosis
    sym-together and biosis-living, the association of 2 different living organisms of 2 different species having a temporary or permanent association
  3. predation
    short lived association between symbionts
  4. phoresis
    phore- to carry, mechanical transmission of an organism, the larger carries the smallest symbiont
  5. mutualism
    "mutual" benefit of symbionts
  6. commensalism
    one benefits while the other neither benefits or is harmed
  7. parasitism
    different species where parasite lives in or on host and may or may not cause harm, parasite is metabolically dependant on the host
  8. ectoparasite
    lives on the host, produces an infestation
  9. endoparasite
    lives in the host, produces an infection in the host
  10. temporary, stationary, permanent
    times spent on host
  11. incidental parasite (accidental)
    not normally found in the host
  12. erratic parasite (aberrant)
    found in unusual places within host, heartworms in the skin
  13. pseudoparasite
    an 'apparent' parasite, not acutally parasite
  14. obligate parasite
    must live on host to survive
  15. facultative parasite
    free living, but can live on host
  16. life cycle
    the entire sequence of developmental stages in the life of a parasite from the adult of one generation to the adult stage in the next generation
  17. direct
    life cycle where parasites move directly from one host to another host
  18. indirect
    life cycle where the parasite requires at least on intermediate host to complete life cycle
  19. passive
    route of transmission that does not 'travel' to host, host ingestion or maternal transfer
  20. active
    route of transmission where the parasite travels to host and or aggresively penetrates
  21. mosquitos
    vector for: heartworms, equine encephalitis, equine infections anemia, west nile
  22. ticks
    vector for: rickettsial disease, lyme, rocky mountain spotted fever
  23. fleas
    vector for: tapeworms, bartonella
  24. definitive host (final host)
    harbors adult, sexual, or mature stages of the parasite
  25. intermediate host
    harbors larval, immature, juvenile, or asexual stages of the parasite. 'carrier' host or vector
  26. incidental host (accidental)
    harbors a parasite 'not intended' for the species
  27. zoonotic
    in man is the incidental host then the parasite is
  28. kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species (ken poured coffee on freds good shirt)
    linnaean classification system
  29. animalia, plants, protista (unicellular organisms), monera (algae), fungi
    5 kingdoms
  30. platyhelminthes, archelminthes, acanthocephalans, annelids, arthropods
    phylum of kingdom animalia
  31. protozoans
    phylum of kingdom protista
  32. alimentary parasites
    parasites from the GI tract
  33. Dirofilaria Immitis
    Nematodes (roundworms), heartworms
  34. heartworm, dirofilaria immitis
    • indirect life cycle
    • more common in dogs than cats
    • reside in right ventricle or pulmonary artery
    • female is live bearer of L1 larvae
    • intermediate host in mosquito
  35. 5-6 months
    heartworm prepatent period (the time from penetration of larvae into the skin until microfilaria are seen in blood stream)
  36. vena caval syndrome
    sudden maturing of large numbers of adult worms, causes 'back-ups' of worms in right ventricle, right atrium, caudal vena cava
  37. Dipetalonema reconditum
    non-pathogenic, filarial nemtode
  38. antigen test
    test for specific proteins on surface of adult worms, ELISA, well tests. The test for actual worms in dogs
  39. antibody test
    test for immune reaction to adult worms, ELISA, well tests. The test to see if you have been exposed, reliable in cats
  40. ancillary HWM diagnostics
    • radiology detects enlarged heart
    • CBC shows eosinophilia
    • chemistries evaluates kidneys/liver
    • ECG evaluates arrhythmias
  41. echocardiograms
    evaluates chambers and arteries for worms
  42. adulticides
    kills adult heartworms (L5), Immiticide
  43. microfilaricide
    kills circulating microfilaria (L1), eliminates carrier state, Ivermectin and milbemycin
  44. heartworm disease prevention
    prevent infective larvae (L3) from developing into adult heartworms (L5)
  45. "Feline Infectious Anemia", Mycoplasma spp.
    RBC destruction and anemia caused by a parasitic attachment to the surface of RBC's and subsequent immune response by host (CAT). Vector: ticks, fleas, animal bites and maternal blood. Treatment: Doxycycline
  46. arthropod
    • 'jointed foot/appendage'
    • exoskeleton of chitin
    • separate sexes
    • egg produces
  47. class insecta
    cockroaches, beetles, moths, butterflies, ants, bees, wasps, mosquitos, sucking/chewing lice, fleas
  48. class acarina
    mites, ticks, spiders, crabs, crayfish, millipedes
  49. class insecta
    • 3 prs of segmented legs
    • 3 body sections
    • compound eyes
    • +/- wings
  50. Ctenocephalides felis
    most prevalent flea, broad host range
  51. Ctenocephalides canis
    flea infrequently seen on dogs, rarely seen on cats
  52. flea life cycle
    • complex metamorphosis w/in 30 days
    • 1. eggs
    • 2. larva
    • 3. pupae
    • 4. adults
  53. pupae
    most resistant part of the fleas life cycle
  54. mechanical and chemical
    flea control, multimodal approach
  55. IGR-insect growth regulators
    inhibits developmental stages of life cycles (collars)
  56. insecticides
    • pet-imidacloprid, fipronil, selamectin
    • environment-permethrin, organophosphates
  57. flea allergy dermatitis FAD
    • crusty scabbing lessions of the skin
    • alopecia and intense pruritus
    • allergen is flea saliva
  58. mosquitos
    • vector of heartworm, malaria, west nile
    • females are blood feeders
    • life cycle one month (all require water source)
    • adults live 2 wks
  59. biting flies
    • ex: deerflies, horseflies, stable flies
    • vector of anthrax (cattle) and roundworms (horses)
  60. Myiasis
    larval development in wound
  61. house fly
    Musca domestica
  62. warbles
    • Cuterebra, Hypoderma spp.
    • aquired by rooting, eggs laid on the ground
    • characteristic fistula on head/neck
    • aberrant migration common
  63. lice
    • mandibulate, 3prs of legs
    • simple metamorphosis: egg (nit), lymph, adult
    • life cycle one month
    • direct contact transmission
  64. acarina
    • 2 body compartments, mouthparts and abdomen
    • egg, larva (6legs), nymph (8legs), adult
  65. acariasis
    infestation of mites or ticks
  66. Demodex canis
    • mites
    • aquired from bitch at birth
    • cigar shaped body with short stubby legs
    • not zoonotic
  67. Sarcoptes scabei
    • burrowing mites of dogs, cats
    • zoonotic
    • "scabies"
  68. Notoedres cati
    • feline scabies
    • yellow crusting of ears, face and neck
  69. Cheyletiella
    walking dandruff/fur mites
  70. Otodectes cynotis
    ear mites of cats and dogs
  71. Psoroptes cuniculi
    ear mites of rabbits
  72. Psoroptes spp
    scab mite of large animals
  73. Chorioptes spp
    mites found on distal part of hind legs and tail of large animals
  74. ticks
    • live <20 yrs
    • consume <5ml blood/feeding
    • egg, larvae (6legs), nymph (8legs), adult
    • dorsoventrally flat bodie
  75. size, shape, color, body markings, host and location on host
    IDing of ticks
  76. Rhipicephalus sanguineus
    brown dog tick
  77. Dermacentor variabilis
    american dog tick
  78. Amblyomma americanum
    lone star tick
  79. Ixodes scapularis
  80. nematodes
    • phylum archelminthes
    • ascarids - roundworms
    • hookworms
    • whipworms
  81. prepatent period
    time from point of infection by a nematode until specific diagnostic stage can be recovered
  82. unembryonated
    unlarvated egg
  83. tracheal migration
    • larvae that migrate to the lungs are coughed up and then swallowed by the host
    • (nematodes)
  84. roundworms (ascarids) and tapeworms
    2 intestinal worms clients can see
  85. Toxocara canis
    Toxocara cati
    Toxascaris leonina
    • dog roundworm
    • cat roundworm
    • dog and cat roundworm
    • prepatent period is 30 days
    • infective stage is L2
  86. roundworms
    zoonotic, visceral and occular migrants
  87. Ancylostoma caninum
    • hookworms
    • infective larve L3
    • can burrow through skin, cutaneous migrants
    • zoonotic
  88. Trichuris vulpis
    • whipworm
    • found in mucosa of colon and cecum
    • infective stage is L1
    • prepatent period is 70-90days
  89. Capillaria plica
    Capillaria feliscati
    • bladder worm of dog
    • bladder worm of cat
    • intermediate host is earthworm (L1stage)
  90. Dictophyma renale
    • kidney worm
    • largest nematode
    • ingests nephrons in right kidney leaving a kidney shell
    • intermediate host is raw fish or frogs (L1)
  91. Giardia
    • protozoan, intestinal
    • prepatent period of 1-2wks
    • zoonotic
  92. trophozoite
    • 4 pairs of flagella, motile (Giardia)
    • four nuclei, non-motile, infective
  93. Metronidazole (flagyl)
    Fenbendazole (panacur)
    Giardia medications
  94. Isospora, Eimeria, Sarcocystis
    coccidia species (reside intracellularly)
  95. Toxoplasma gondii
    • coccidia of cats
    • zoonotic potential (HIV persons, expectant mothers)
    • eyes inflammation, head pressing
    • concurrent diseases FeLV, FIV
  96. Cryptosporidium
    protozoans of small intestine, wide variety of animals inc dogs and cats, zoonotic
  97. cestodes, tapeworms
    • indirect life cycle, needs int host
    • prepatent period of 30 days
  98. proglottid
    segments that comprise the body of a cestode
  99. scolex
    head of a cestode by which it attaches to its host
  100. cysticeroid
    microscopic larval stage (associated w/ Dipylidium caninum)
  101. Dipylidium caninum
    tapeworm whose host is the flea
  102. Taenia spp
    tapeworm whose intermediate host is the rodent
  103. Echinococcus spp
    tapeworms that are zoonotic
  104. trematodes
    flukes, flatworms with unsegmented shape that lacks a body cavity
  105. Paragonimus kellicotti
    lung fluke of dogs and cats
  106. Fasciola hepatica
    liver fluke of cattle and sheep
  107. Paramphistomum
    rumen fluke of cattle, sheep and goats
  108. Platynosomum fastosum
    liver fluke of cats
  109. Nanophyetus salmincola
    dogs flukes, small intestine and vector for rickettsial agents