oral path

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oral path
2011-05-01 12:24:46
oral path

oral path final
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  1. Etiology Cleft lip/palate
    • The etiology involves both hereditary and
    • environmental factors.

    • Approximately 40% of CL with or without CP are
    • hereditary.

    20% of isolated CP are hereditary.

    • 5% of cleft cases are associated with
    • syndromes (monogenic).
  2. Clefts
    Boys are affected more than girls

    Left side more than right

    • Are mostly isolated (not associated with
    • syndrome)

    • Over 180 syndromes have cleft lip as part of
    • syndrome

    • There is a substantial genetic links in
    • many families

    Cleft palate without cleft lip occurs one in every 2000 live births

    • It is more
    • likely associated with other syndromes and congenital anomalies (Apprx 376)
  3. A
    structural defect of the tongue in which the extremity is divided
    longitudinally for a greater or lesser distance.
    bifid tongue
  4. Extensive
    adhesion of the tongue to the floor of the mouth or the lingual aspect of the
    anterior portion of the mandible caused by a short lingual frenum.
  5. A redundant
    piece of mucosal tissue that projects from the maxillary labial frenum.
    Frenal Tag
  6. Autosomal dominant
    trait resulting in developmental defects involving the paramedial portion of
    the vermilion of the lower and upper lip or the labial commissure area.
    Congenital Lip pits
  7. Anomaly characterized by a horizontal fold of redundant
    mucosal tissue located on the inner aspect of the upper lip
    double lip
  8. Fordyce Granules
    • Cluster of
    • ectopic sebaceous glands on the lips or buccal mucosa; variant of normal.
  9. Exostosis
    • An exophytic nodular growth of dense
    • cortical bone commonly located on maxillary or mandibular buccal alveolar bone, usually in
    • the bicuspid / molar area.
  10. torus palatinus
    • Hard, firm isolated mass on
    • hard palate.

    • May be a few centimeters to
    • several centimeters

    Appears in adulthood.

    • Not to be confused with
    • a neoplasm, but is a development process.

    • May interfere when dentures
    • are constructed.

    • Interference not evident
    • during eating, speaking or swallowing
  11. torus mandibularis
    • 1-n 6-7%.
    • 0.60% in Eskimos.

    Equal frequency between the sexes.


    Premolar region above the mylohyoid line.

    Their size varies and may extend distally.

    Single, multiple or lobulated.

    Entirely of cortical bone or be formed by cancellous bone with an overlying shell of cortical bone.
  12. Condition which involves the enlargement of half of the head
    with enlarged teeth on the involved side
    hemifacial hypertrophy
  13. A
    characteristic loss in the soft tissues below the skin, usually on one side of
    the face

    In some
    severe cases, the underlying bone is also effected
    Hemifacial atrophy
  14. Possible causes of Hemifacial Atrophy
    • peripheral nerve dysfunction
    • trauma
    • infection
    • heredity
    • regional uniliateral progressive systemic sclerosis
  15. Oral Mucosa and Gingival Tissue Developmental Disorders
    Papillon-Lefevre Syndrome.

    • Focal Pulmoplantar and Oral Mucosal
    • Hyperkeratosis Syndrome.

    White Sponge Nevus
  16. Papillon-Lefevre syndrome
    • inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, manifests with palmoplantar keratoderma and early,
    • destructive periodontitis.
  17. Focal palmoplantar and oral mucosa
    hyperkeratosis syndrome
    This syndrome is characterized by autosomal-dominant inheritance, white lesions of the gingiva, and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis.

    The mucosal and skin lesionsreveal an abnormal keratinization of the gingiva and palmoplantar epidermis
  18. Relatively
    rare autosomal dominant hereditary
    condition in which the oral mucosa is white, thickened, and folded
    White Sponge Nevus
  19. Developmental Syndroms: dysmorphology
    • Down Syndrome
    • Oral-Facial-Digital Syndrome
    • Chondroectodermal Dysplasia
    • Treacher Collins Syndrome
    • Cleidocranial Dysplasia
  20. Down Syndrome
    • Most
    • frequent genetic cause of mild to moderate mental retardation and associated
    • medical problems

    • ▪ Occurs in one out
    • of 800 live births, in all
    • races and economic groups.

    • ▪ A chromosomal disorder
    • caused by an error in cell division that results in the presence of an
    • additional third chromosome 21 or "trisomy
    • 21."
  21. Oral-Facial-Digital Syndrome type I
    X linked Dominant: only in females and lethal in males

    • Oral:
    • lobed tongue, hamartomas or lipomas of the
    • tongue, cleft of the hard or soft palate, hypodontia and other dental abnormalities

    • Facial:
    • ocular hypertelorism , median cleft or pseudocleft upper lip, and micrognathia.

    • Digital :
    • brachydactyly, syndactyly of varying degrees, and clinodactyly of the fifth finger; duplicated hallux [great toe]; preaxial or postaxial polydactyly of the hands
  22. The lip deformity, often referred to as a "partial hairlip“, results
    from an abnormally short upper lip which may also be sunken secondary to hypoplasia of the

    The teeth are affected, with eruption occurring at birth or shortly thereafter
  23. Mandibulofacial Dysostosis
    Treacher Collins Syndrome
  24. Treacher Collins Syndrome
    An autosomal dominant disorder characterized by certain facial features including downward slanting palpebral fissures, sunken cheekbones, receding chin, and malformed ears

    • mandibular hypoplasia
    • hypoplasia of the zygomatic arch
  25. Cleidocranial Dysplasia
    • A rare condition inherited as an autosomal dominant
    • and characterized by partial or complete absence of the clavicles, defective ossification of the skull, and faulty occlusion due to missing, misplaced, or supernumerary teeth
  26. Developmental Sydromes: Soft & Hard Tissue
    Hypohydrotic and Anhydrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia


    MENS type 2B

    Cowden’s Syndrome

    Ehler-Danlos Syndrome

    Gardner Syndrome

    Peutz Jegher Syndrome

    Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome

    Sturge Weber Syndrome

    Pier RobinSyndrome

    Osteogenesis Imperfecta
  27. Ectodermal Dysplasia
    • -absence or deficiency of two or more functions of ectoderm
    • deficient tears and saliva
    • poorly functioning mucous membranes
    • frequent respiratory infections
    • hearing or vision deficits
    • missing fingers or toes
    • cleft lip and/or palate
    • problems with immune system
    • sensitivity to light
    • lack of breast development
    • other abnormalities of the ectoderm
  28. Neurofibromatosis Overall
    • autosomal dominant disease characterized by
    • disordered growth of ectodermal tissues, and is part of a group of disorders called Phakomatoses (neurocutaneous syndrome).
  29. Neurofibromatosis I
    • Von Recklinghausen disease
    • characterized by spots of increased skin pigmentation (café au lait spots), combined with peripheral nerve tumors and a variety of others dysplastic abnormalities of the skin, nervous system, bones, endocrine organs and blood vessels
  30. Neurofibromatosis II
    autosomal dominant disorder localized to chromosome 22(long arm) and characterized by bilatera acoustic neurofibromas and often other intracranial tumors such as meningiomas and ependymomas
  31. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndrome (MENS)
    Autosomal dominant condition involving the parathyroid, pancreas, thyroid, and adrenals

    • With one variant (MEN-IIB) that has an oral manifestation consisting of multiple neuromas on the
    • mucosal surfaces
  32. Cowden Syndrome
    • Multiple Hamartoma Syndrome
    • an autosomal dominant inherited syndrome characterized by multiple hamartomas occurring
    • in the skin, breast, thyroid, gastrointestinal tract, endometrium, and brain.
    • Oral:
    • Papules are 1-3 mmwith a smooth surface and a whitish appearance and are present in the gingival, labial, and palatal surfaces
    • of the mouth in more than 80% of
    • patients.

    • Lesions often coalesce into confluent sheets, which are described as having a
    • cobblestone appearance.

    • Histologically, they are benign fibromas.
    • Thickening or furrowing of the tongue (scrotal tongue) also may be present

    • Patients do
    • have an increased risk of
    • experiencing malignant tumors with the
    • most common ones are breast,
    • endometrial, and thyroid cancer
  33. Peutz-Jegher's Syndrome
    • -Hereditary Intestinal Polyposis
    • nautosomal dominant condition characterized by:

    • multiple hamartomatous polyps of the gastrointestinal
    • tract - most often in the small bowel but may occur affect any portion of the GI tract

    mucocutaneous pigmentation - mainly, ofthe lips, buccal mucosa, genitalia, hands and feet

    • Patients often present with small bowel
    • intussusceptions before the age of 10 years.

    The polyps themselves have a very low malignant potential. About 10-20% of patients develop gastrointestinal carcinoma but this is thought to arise from coexistent adenomas.

    Patients have an increased risk of developing carcinomas of the pancreas, lung, ovary and breast.
  34. Gardner's Syndrome
    a variant of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)

    an autosomal dominant disease characterized by GI polyps, multiple osteomas, and skin and soft tissue tumors

    Cutaneous findings include epidermoid cysts, desmoid tumors, and other benign tumors

    • Polyps have a 100% risk of undergoing malignant
    • transformation; consequently, early identification of the disease is critical

    • supernumerary teeth, mandibular cysts,
    • impaction
  35. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome
    • Gorlin's Syndrome
    • Autosomal dominant syndrome which exhibits multiple
    • OKC, bifid ribs, basal cell carcinoma, and calcification of the falx cerebri
  36. Ehler Danlos Syndrome
    inheritable connective tissue disorders.

    It comprises a group of ten different subtypes.

    • The main clinical manifestations are skin
    • fragility, abnormal scar formation, excessive bruising, joint laxity and sometimes rupture of viscera and
    • arteries.
  37. Pierre Robin Syndrome
    • airway obstruction associated with glossoptosis and hypoplasia of the mandible.
    • Today this syndrome is characterized by retrognathia or micrognathia, glossoptosis, and airway obstruction.
    • An incomplete cleft of the palate is associated with the syndrome in approximately 50% of these patients
  38. Sturge Weber Syndrome
    Vascular Facial birthmark

    • Neurological Symptoms due to the intracranial angiomas of the posterior or occipital region of the brain and cause seizures, which often start before one
    • year of age and may worsen with age
  39. Osteogenesis Imperfecta
    • Type I
    • Most common and mildest type of OI.
    • Bones predisposed to fracture. Most fractures occur before puberty.
    • Normal or near-normal stature.
    • Loose joints and low muscle tone.
    • Sclera (whites of the eyes) usually have a blue,purple, or gray tint.
    • Triangular face.
    • Tendency toward spinal curvature.
    • Bone deformity absent or minimal.
    • Brittle teeth possible. (Dentinogenesis Imperfecta I)
    • Hearing loss possible, often beginning in early 20s or 30s.
    • Collagen structure is normal, but the amount is less than normal
  40. Ulcerated Lesions
    • 1-Traumatic ulcer
    • 2-Aphthous ulcer
    • 3-Primaryherpetic gingivostomatitis

    • 4-Recurrent herpes
    • 5-Herpangina
    • 6-Herpeszoster
    • 7-Primary syphilis
    • 8-Secondary syphilis
    • 9-Tuberculosis
    • 10-Deepfungal infection
    • 11-Necrotizingulcerative gingivitis
    • 12-Necrotizing sialometaplasia

    • 13-Ulcers associated with systemic diseases
    • 14-Squamous cell carcinoma
    • 15-Salivary gland carcinoma
  41. Red Lesions
    • 1-Erythematous Candidiasis (acute or chronic)
    • 2-Angular Cheilitis

    3-Median rhomboid glossitis

    • 4-Erythroplakia
    • 5-Migratory Glossitis

    • 6-Mucosal allergy
    • 7-Atrophic Glossitis

    • 8-Plasma cell gingivitis
    • 9-Submucosal hemorrhages
    • 10-Sturge-Weber angiomatosis

    11-Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia
  42. Vesiculo-bullous (blistering/sloughing) lesions
    1-Erosive/bullous lichen planus

    2-Cicatrical pemphigoid

    3-Pemphigus vulgaris

    4-Erythema multiforme

    5-Lupus erythematosus

    6-Mucosal burn
  43. Intravascular Blood lesions

    2- Lymphangioma

    3-Lingual varicosity

    4-Kaposi’s sarcoma

    5-Reactive lesions (pyogenic granuloma,

    giant cell granuloma)
  44. Extra-vascular Blood Lesions
    • 1Petechia
    • 2Hematoma
  45. Melanin Pigmentation localized lesions


    3-melanotic macule (reactive, smoking, Physiologic)


    • 5-Melanoma and
    • others
  46. Melanin Pigmented generalized/genetic/systemic lesions
    1-Peutz-jegher syndrome

    2-Albright syndrome

    • 3-Addison disease,
    • pregnancy and medication
  47. White soft tissue surface lesions w/ epithelial thickening
    • Thickening
    • 1-Leukoplakia
    • 2-Tobacco related lesions
    • 3-Actinic Cheilitis (solar kerastosis)
    • 4-Immune related white lesions
    • lichen planus
    • lupus erythematous
    • 5-Unknown etiology
    • 6-Viral origin
    • 7-Hereditary
  48. White soft tissue lesions easily wiped off
    • 1pseudomembranous candidiasis
    • 2 mucosal burns
  49. white soft tissue lesions w/ submucousal origin
    • •Submucosal fibrosis
    • •Fordyce granules
    • •Congenital keratin filled cyst (Epstein pearls)
    • •Lymphoepithelial cyst
  50. Papillary lesions
    Squamous papilloma

    Verrucous vulgaris

    Condyloma acuminatum

    • Focal epithelial hyperplasia
    • Inflammatory papillary hyperplasia
    • Keratoacanthoma

    Verrucous carcinoma
  51. soft tissue enlargements: firm and semi-firm

    Peripheral ossifying fibroma

    Epulis fissuratum



    Neurofibroma and Schwannoma

    • Granular cell tumor
    • Carcinoma and salivary gland tumors
    • Drug induced gingival enlargement
    • Leukemic gingivitis
    • Other
    • Primary & Metastatic carcinoma
  52. Soft Tissue vascular rich tumors
    Pyogenic granuloma

    • peripheral giant cell granuloma
    • Hemangioma


  53. soft and compressible soft tissue enlargments
    • Mucocele
    • Ranula

    • Parulis
    • Abscess
    • Cysts
  54. Benign and Benign behaving lesions of salivary glands
    • •Pleomorphic Adenoma
    • •Monomorphic Adenoma
    • •Papillary Cystadenoma Lymphomatosum

    • •Low Grade Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma
    • •Polymorphous Low Grade Adenocarcinoma
  55. soft tissue malignancy characteristics
    • •Irregular border.
    • •Rapid growth rate.
    • •Ulcerated.
    • •Fixed to underlying structure.
    • Neurological symptoms including numbness parasthesia, pain, paralysis
  56. Soft tissue salivary gland benign characteristics
    • •Asymptomatic
    • •Sub-mucosal
    • •Movable (encapsulated)
    • •Slow growing
    • •Non-ulcerated
  57. o
    A clinical term descriptive for a white
    plaque or patch on the oral mucosa that cannot be rubbed off and classified as
    any other clinically diagnosable disease (not
    definitive) like nicotine stomatitis
  58. A diffuse white change of the palate and/or
    buccal mucosa caused by a combination of hyperkeratosis and acanthosis,
    frequently containing multiple small dimpled nodules; found in heavy smokers
    nicotinic stomatitis
  59. o
    A common
    premalignant leukoplakic lesion of the lip that is caused by cumulative Ultraviolet
    radiation to sun-exposed skin
    Solar Cheilitis
  60. §
    common benign, chronic immunologically mediated mucocutaneous disorder affecting the skin and oral mucosa; characteristic pattern of interconnecting
    (reticular) leukoplakic lines called striae
    Lichen planus
  61. §
    Condition of chronic inflammation caused by an autoimmune disease
    Can cause disease of the skin, heart, lungs, kidneys, joints, and nervous system
    Has associated circulating autoantibodies to DNA and other nuclear and RNA proteins.
    Circular whitish oral mucosal lesions and erythematous rashes of the sun-exposed skin.
    • Lupus Erythematous
    • §
    • Only skin
    • involved, It is called Discoid Lupus (DLE)

    • §
    • Internal
    • organs involved, it is called Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
  62. §
    Considered a
    normal condition which is characterized by a generalized white, opalescent
    quality of the buccal mucosa (disappears when stretched)
  63. §
    hereditary benign white lesion syndrome of an autosomal dominant, highly
    penetrant nature primarily affecting descendants of a triracial isolate (Native
    American, African-American and white)
    • o
    • Hereditary Benign Intraepithelial Dyskeratosis (HBID) – Witkop-Von Salmann Syndrome
  64. Mucosal leukoplakia occurs in approximately 80% of patients and typically involves the buccal mucosa, tongue, and oropharynx. The leukoplakia may become verrucous, and ulceration may occur. Patients also may have an increased prevalence and severity of periodontal disease
    -is also considered a developmental/hereditary condition
    Congenital Dyskeratosis
  65. §
    accumulation of keratin on the filiform papillae of the dorsal tongue,
    resulting in a hair-like appearance
    Hairy Tongue
  66. §
    sensitive irregularly shaped erythematous patches of the tongue with arcuate
    white rims that enlarge and change shape daily
    Geographic tongue, migratory glossitis, erythema migrans
  67. §
    patches of the lateral borders of the tongue with a tendency for vertical
    linear folds

    Found in
    latent stages of HIV infected patients

    epithelium containing an upper zone of clear cells (koilocytes), most of which
    contain Epstein-Barr virus
    Hairy Leukoplakia
  68. o white, creamy, loose patches of desquamated
    o containing
    numerous matted mycelia over an erythematous mucosa that is easily removed
    o common in pts with more severe predisposing factors
    o asymptomatic or with burning sensation in pts
    pseudomembranous candidiasis
  69. o
    Common form
    of superficial leukoplakia of the oral mucosa

    with a large number of chemicals and drugs which are caustic and cause
    clinically significant damage
    mucosal burn
  70. o
    whitish-yellow lesion that has a chronic insidious biologic course; result of
    frequent chewing of the areca or betel nut
    submucous fibrosis
  71. o
    Cluster of
    ectopic sebaceous glands on the lips or buccal mucosa; variant of normal
    fordyce granules
  72. Congenital Keratotic Cyst also known as...
    • 1 dental lamina cyst
    • 2 Bohn's Nodules
    • 3. epstein pearl
  73. o
    A cyst with
    a lumen lined by a keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium and a capsule
    containing multiple normal lymphoid follicles and a dense accumulation of
    normal lymphocytes
    lymphoepithelial cyst
  74. Congenital absence of one or more teeth
    hypodontia (partial anadontia)
  75. most common missing teeth
    • Most common missing teeth are 3rd molars followed by
    • maxillary lateral incisor and 2nd premolars
  76. Teeth in excess of the normal number
    supernumerary (hyperdontia)
  77. description of Supernumerary teeth
    • 90% in maxilla
    • Single or multiple
    • Impacted or erupted
    • Mesiodens most common
    • Fourth molars
    • Lateral incisors
    • Impacted supernumerary teeth characteristic of cleidocranial dysplasia
  78. Clinically visualized anomolies of tooth shape and form


    n3-Dens Invaginatus

    n4-Dens Evaginatus
  79. Radiographic dental anomolies of tooth shape and form




    n5-Enamel Pearl
  80. Abnormally
    shaped crown that is extra wide due to the development of two crowns from one
    tooth germ.
  81. An abnormally shaped tooth that may appear as an extra wide
    crown, a normal crown with an extra root, or other combinations resulting from
    the union of two adjacent tooth germs by dentin during development
  82. Dens invaginatus
    Dens in Dente

    • Developmental
    • anomaly in which a focal area of the crown of a maxillary lateral incisor is folded inward (invaginated) for various distances.

    When severe, this results in a conically shaped tooth with a small surface opening (“dens in dente”).

    Quickly becomes subject to caries, pulpitis, and periapical inflammation.
  83. A developmental anomaly in which a
    focal area of the crown projects outward and produces what appears as an
    extra cusp or an abnormal shape to existing cuspal arrangements (talon cusps).
    Dens Evaginatus
  84. A sharp bend or angulation of the root portion of a tooth
    • dilaceration:
    • Trauma during tooth development

    Continued root formation during a curve or tortuous path of eruption


    Complicates extraction
  85. A molar with an elongated crown and apically placed furcation of the
    roots, resulting in an enlarged rectangular coronal pulpal chamber
    • taurodontism:
    • Molar with
    • an elongated crown, apically placed furcation, rectangular pulpal chamber


    • Amelogenesis imperfecta, Down
    • syndrome

    Common in Neanderthal man

    No treatment

    Complicated RCT
  86. Two or more roots unite by cementum after root formation
    Cause: trauma, crowding
    Maxilla molars
  87. Cervical enamel projections occur where, what size, and contribute to...
    • - cej
    • -1-3mm long, 1mm wide
    • periodontal pocketing
  88. Excessive deposit of cementum on root surface
    • Hypercementosis
    • Cause:
    • Increased or decreasedforces
    • Paget’s Disease
    • Hyperpituitarism

    Chronic infection in adjacent area
  89. Causes of enamel hypoplasia
    • n1-Heredity (Amelogenesis Imperfecta)
    • n2-Truma and local injury (Turner’s Tooth)
    • n3-Congenital Infection (Hutchinson Incisors)
    • n4-Excessive ingestion Of Fluoride (Mottled Enamel)
    • n5- Febrile Systemic Infection
    • n6-Nutritional And Vitamin Deficiency
    • n7-Traumatic Birth
  90. A spectrum of hereditary defects in the function of
    ameloblasts and the mineralization of enamel matrix.

    Results in teeth with multiple generalized abnormalities affecting the enamel layer only
    Amelogenesis Imperfecta
  91. Dentinogeneseis Imperfecta
    • Opalescent teeth, undermineralized dentin
    • Autosomal dominant
    • Tooth fractures and chips away easily leads to exposed dentin and functional attrition
    • Radiographically:
    • Bulb-shaped crowns with constricted CEJ and obliterated pulp and root canals
  92. A hereditary defect in dentin formation in which the coronal dentin and tooth color is normal; the root dentin is abnormal with a gnarled pattern and associated shortened and tapered roots
    Dentin Dysplasia
  93. A developmental disturbance of several adjacent teeth of unknown etiology.
    Enamel and dentin are thin and irregular and fail to adequately mineralize.
    Surrounding soft tissue is hyperplastic and
    contains focal accumulations of spherical calcifications and odontogenic rests
    -ghost teeth
  94. Benign vascular anomaly dense collections of dilated small blood vessels (capillaries)
  95. —Benign proliferation of lymphatic vessels.

    —Occurs as a focal superficial lesion within
    the oral cavity and as a massive
    diffuse lesion of the neck
    • lymphangioma
    • "cystic hygroma" in newborns
  96. A normal variant in adults over 60 years of age.
    Enlarged veins usually purple or red on ventral and lateral surface of the tongue
  97. A unique form of angiosarcoma that occurs in elderly and HIV-positive patients and has a predilection for the palate
    Kaposi Sarcoma
  98. —A rapidly developing vascular growth
    A collection of blood vessels that grow
    quickly and abundantly.
    —Often at the site of an injury; usually occurs
    in children and occasionally in adults.
    Particularly pregnant women
    Pyogenic Granuloma
  99. —An uncommon reactive growth of granulation
    tissue in youngsters.
    Appearing as a
    red-purple mass arising from the gingiva
    Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma
  100. A large ecchymosis or bruise caused by the escape of blood into the tissues. Are blue on the skin and red on the mucous membranes. They may turn brown, green, or yellow
  101. Little red spots, ranging in size from pinpoint to
    several millimeters in diameter
  102. These are the most common pigmented lesions of caucasian children. They are ubiquitous and inconsequential They appear in early childhood after sun-exposure, then fade and reappear in relation to further sun exposure
  103. —Physiologic or reactive lesions.
    —Small, flat, brown areas of the mucosal surfaces.
    Caused by an increase in the production of melanin granules but not in the number of melanocytes
    melanotic macule
  104. —A benign, exophytic, usually pigmented, —Congenital lesion of the skin or mucosa Composed of focal
    collections of rounded melanocytes
  105. Agespots - Harmless, flat, tan, brown or black spots that appear over time on sun exposed areas of skin
  106. —Malignant neoplasm of melanocytes occurring on skin and mucosal surfaces.
    Commonly has a radial and superficial initial growth period before it extends into the deeper underlying tissues and metastasizes
    Melanoma (malignant)
  107. A rare benign, and locally aggressive (radiolucent) intrabony pigmented neoplasm of neural crest origin in infants, that may perforate the cortex and enter the
    soft tissue
    Melanotic Neuroectodermal Tumor of Infancy (MNTI)
  108. A locally benign aggressive tumor of sun-exposed area of the skin that occasionally may be pigmented
    Basel Cell Carcinoma
  109. •Commonly encountered, painful, small
    superficial ulcers.
    •The oral gland-bearing mucosa.
    Occur episodically in clusters of one to five lesions
    aphthous minor
  110. •One or two uncommon, large, superficial
    painful ulcers.
    Usually present on the labial mucosa and soft palate
    Aphthous major
  111. •Rare, Multiple, small, painful,
    superficial ulcers.
    With episodes of long duration that occur on gland-bearing and keratinizing mucosa
    Herpetiform aphthous ulcers
  112. ?
    Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
  113. Syphilis oral manifestations
    • This indicates the site of inoculation with
    • the micro-organism.
    • The chancre is usually an elevated, ulcerated nodule,
    • and may occur in the oral cavity or on the lip.
    • It may be painful because of secondary infection and the ulcer is usually covered with a grayish-white
    • membrane intra-orally.
    • There is local induration, and regional lymphadenopathy
  114. TB oral manifestations
    • They may occur in any location on the oral mucous membrane, but are most common on the tongue,
    • and thereafter on the palate, lips, buccal mucosa and frenula.

    The lesion classically presents as a painful, irregular ulcer which tends to increase in size over a period of time
  115. Fungal infection manifestations
    erythematic ulcerated lesions very similar in appearance to SSC
  116. thinned, smooth, and bright red with symptoms of burning and increased sensitivity.
    Commonlyfound on the palate under a denture but also on the tongue and other mucosalsurfaces
    Atrophic (erythematous) candidiasis
  117. bilateral fissures of the corners of the mouth that are common in patients with C. albicans infection
    in other parts of the mouth. It is often intensified with mouth over closure and requires treatment with antifungal medication
    angular cheilitis
  118. An asymptomatic, elongated, erythematous patch of atrophic mucosa of the mid-dorsal surface of the tongue due to a chronic C. albicans infection
    Median Rhomboid Glossitis
  119. A chronic lung infection common in the Mississippi Valley.
    May have associated intraoral lesions consisting of a chronic ulcer resembling a malignancy
  120. characterized by contiguous spread, suppurative and granulomatousinflammatory reaction, and formation of multipleabscesses and sinus tracts that discharge sulfur
  121. Spontaneous of unknown etiology usually of the palate in which large area of surface epithelium, underlying connective tissue, and associated minor salivary glands become necrotic while ducts undergo squamous metaplasia
    Necrotizing sialometaplasia
  122. Malignant salivary gland tumor of varying degrees of aggressiveness.
    Composed of mucus-secreting
    and stratified squamous (epidermoid) epithelial cells and lacking a capsule
    Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma
  123. Malignant salivary gland tumor.
    Composed of cuboidal cells in a solid, cribriform (“Swiss cheese” appearance) or tubular pattern.
    With a predilection for invading perineural lymphatic spaces
    Cylindroma (Adenocystic carcinoma)
  124. Acinic Cell Carcinoma
    Acini cancer primarily of the Parotid gland
  125. A red patch of the oral mucosa frequently caused by epithelial dysplasia, or squamous cell carcinoma
  126. bald tongue which causes it to be sensitive to many stimuli
    atrophic glossitis
  127. Symptoms after touching allergen to tongue:

    •Bad taste
    •Excessive salivation
    •Perioral itching
    contact stomatitis
  128. an inherited disorder of the blood vessels that can cause excessive bleeding
    Hereditary hemorrhagic Telangiectasia
  129. Patient's with thiscondition complain of a sore mouth that is sensitive to cold and hot, spicy foods, and alcoholic beverages occuring on red and white patches intra-orally
    erosive/bullous lichen planus
  130. A desquamating condition of mucous membranes.
    Autoimmune reaction occurs at the level of the
    basement membrane destroying hemi-desmosome
    Commonly affects the gingiva before extending to other mucosal locations
    +Nikolsky sign
    • Benign mucous membrane pemphigoid
    • "Cicatrical pemphigoid"
  131. •A desquamating condition of the oral
    mucosa and skin.
    •Auto-antibodies react and destroy
    antigenic components of the desmosomes of
    the intermediate cells
    Producing epithelial separation above the basal cell layer
    + Nikolsky Sign
    Pemphigus Vulgaris
  132. •A widespread hypersensitivity reaction
    •Occurs in mild and severe forms.
    •Tissue reactions centered around the
    superficial vessels of the skin and mucous membranes.
    Usually occurs in patients as the result of an inciting agent
    Erythema Multiforme
  133. •A chronic inflammatory condition of theskin, connective tissue, and specific internal organs.•Associated circulating auto-antibodiesto DNA and other nuclear and RNA proteins. Circularwhitish buccal mucosal lesions and erythematousrashes of the sun-exposed skin
    Lupus erythematous
  134. •A generalized desquamative
    condition of the skin and mucosa.
    Associated scarring contractures and dental defects that occur in three main hereditary forms in children and one acquired form in adults
    Epidermolysis Bullosa
  135. benign papillary lesion
    squamous papilloma
  136. wart caused by HPV
    Verrucous Vulgaris
  137. A benign endophytic epithelial growth
    Appearing as a well-circumscribed keratin-filled crater.
    On sun exposed skin.
    Often mistaken for Squamous cell carcinoma (similar
  138. Venereal wart caused by HPV
    Condyloma Acuminatum
  139. thickening of epithelium due to HPV infection
    focal epithlial hyperplasia
  140. •Multiple small nodules that consist of a proliferation of fibrous connective tissue with an associated chronic inflammation found under ill-fitting dentures.
    Inflammatory papillary hyperplasia
  141. Distinct, diffuse, papillary, superficial, non-metastasizing, form of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma
    Verrucous carcinoma
  142. Malignant neoplasm of stratified squamous epithelium that is capable of locally destructive growth and distant metastasis
  143. Tissueswelling composed of pooled mucus that escaped into the connective tissue from a severed excretory duct usually w/ a blue appearance
  144. A form of mucocele located on the floor of the mouth
  145. Acyst of the midline of the upper neck or the anterior floor of the mouth of young patients, derived from remnants of embryonic skin, consisting of a lumen lined
    by a keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium and containing one or more skin appendages such as hair, sweat, or sebaceous glands
    dermoid cyst
  146. A cyst of skin with a lumen lined by keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium, usually filled with keratin and without skin appendages in the capsule wall
    epidermoid cyst
  147. A cyst located above the thyroid gland and beneath the base of the tongue, with a lumen lined by a mixture of epithelial cell types derived from remnants of the
    embryonic thyroglossal tract, and often containing thyroid tissue in the capsule
    Thyroglossal tract cyst
  148. An unusually large lymphoepithelial cyst located on the
    lateral aspect of the neck
    • Cervical Lymphoepithelial Cyst
    • (Branchial Cleft Cyst)
  149. A small developmental odontogenic cyst of the gingival
    soft tissue derived from the rests of the dental lamina, containing a lining of embryonic epithelium of cuboidal cells and distinctive focal thickenings similar to the lateral periodontal cyst
    Gingival Cyst
  150. Hyperplasia of fibrous connective tissue that evolves in response to chronic irritation in which there is extensive elaboration of collagen resembling scar tissue
  151. Gingival nodule consisting of a reactive hyperplasia of connective tissue containing focal areas of (metaplastic) bone
    peripheral ossifying fibroma
  152. Proliferation of fibrous connective tissue with an associated chronic inflammation in response to chronic injury
    --chronic low-grade irritation from an ill-fitting
    • Inflammatory Fibrous Hyperplasia
    • (Epulis Fissuratum)
  153. •It presents as a well defined, soft, sessile or pedunculated mass, with normal looking mucosa overlying it.
    •On occasion translucent, giving off a yellowish color.
    Growth is slow and the favourite location is the buccal mucosa
  154. Painful nodular proliferation of nerve and fibrous tissue of the nerve sheath resulting from the futile attempt of nerve fibers to reunite with their severed distal portion
  155. •Demarcated or diffuse benign proliferation of perineural fibroblasts.
    They are oriented in either a random pattern with a myxoid background or a nodular (plexiform) pattern
  156. •Well-demarcated, and encapsulated benign tumor.
    Consisting of a fibroblastic proliferation of the nerve sheath cell
  157. •Submucosal mass consisting of diffuse sheets of large cells of either nerve or muscle origin with a cytoplasm
    of densely packed eosinophilic granules (lysosomal bodies) and commonly found on the dorsal surface of the tongue.
    granular cell tumor
  158. Gingival Hyperplasia drug groups:
    • immunosuppresants: cyclosporine
    • anti-confuvulsants: dilantin
    • Ca Channel blockers
  159. leukemia oral manifestations
    Enlarged gingiva,bleeding and ulcers