Nichols

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Author:
pretty4Jesus
ID:
82615
Filename:
Nichols
Updated:
2011-04-29 01:37:14
Tags:
uman Behavior
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Description:
Nichols Learning Theory
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  1. def of Learning
    persistent change in behavior resulting from repeated practice or experience which includes interaction of both behavior and environment
  2. State-dependent learning –
    • learning can be influenced by a person‘s internal state or the
    • external environment in which the information was first acquired. Consequently, retrieval
    • of information may be more efficient when the person is in the same internal state/external environment as when the information was learned (e.g., improved recall when studying ―state‖ resembles testing ―state)
  3. Classical Conditioning
    • learning as a result of the contiguity of environmental events
    • Pavlov's dogs
    • extinction, stimulus generalization, discrimination, aversive conditioning
    • Clinical apps: Learned Helplessness; System Desensitization
  4. Operant Conditioning
    • learning as a result of the consequences of voluntary actions
    • Skinner's Rats and levers
    • Trial-and-error
    • Positive-reinforcent
    • Negative reinforcemnt: removal of aversive event (escape learning, avoidance learning)
    • Reinforcement schedule (and extinction)
  5. Social learning
    • Model: learning thru observation and imitation
    • Shaping: rewarding/reinforcing behavior that are closer and closer to desired (potty training)
    • involves both classical and operant
    • Bobo dolls, AA
  6. Cognitive Learning
    • obtaining, organizing, and using intellectual knowledge
    • -understanding cause and effect/ action and conseq
    • Cognitive dissonance: (cheesecake)

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