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may examine the ways that an individual transforms his or her environment.
Any theory of personality
can potentially be tested; it is just a matter of finding the best methodology.
False- Sometimes it is impossible to test some theoretical precedence’s—some theories can not empirically test
Because personality psychology is used to help
improve the quality of people’s lives, we say that it is a(n) ________ science.
- Applied-we use it to directly influence people
- lives, typically for the better
All of the following are true of correlational
studies show which variables go together.
The degree of
correlation can be expressed by a number called a correlation coefficient (r).
studies are used to discover the causal nature of the relation between two
show how variables are related.
All of the
above are true of correlations.
- Correlational studies are used to discover the causal nature of the relation between twovariables.
If two parts of the same questionnaire are not correlated with one
another, then the measure lacks:
E. Internal consistency
Eysenck stressed that the introversion-extroversion
dimension is based on __________.
B. Empirical research
C. Historical precedent
D. Common sense
E. Extensive clinical experience
B. Empirical research
What is a “multiple-act
- C. A pooled combination of
- many behaviors that are relevant to the trait
- D. A combination of
- observations made by several raters
- Both C and D- if we want to test a trait on how well it
- predicts a certain behavior, sample behaviors with different reports, combining
- scores, and how they relate
In 1968, Mischel reviewed
existing personality research and concluded that the evidence for behavior
variation across situations was ________.
- Massive- started if...then… and
- type I and type II situations (much variation across situations)
Studies of children at a
summer camp found that if…then…
patterns of aggression exist, but are not stable over time.
Behavior signatures are
particularly useful for:
Getting a highly individualized picture of what “makes someone tick”- it’s a great way to get individual pictures of how people are in general and in individual situations, we all have unique patterns
Similar values and
interests in identical twins raised apart may be due to __________ rather than
their genetic make-up.
Similar physique and appearance- they look very similar, so based on interactions, they have similar experiences
According to the text, genetic factors interact
with ________ in order to produce Person x Situation Interactions.
Environment- the situations we are in are components to our environment, they influence this
All of the following are
true of the human genome EXCEPT:
- Many genes are
- identical in all human beings.
- There are
- variations between different individuals in the expression of some genes.
- genes directly influence behavior. – some genes do not, genes influence the
- brain, the brain influences behavior
- There are variations
- between humans and other species in the expression of some genes.
- All of the
- above are true of the human genome.
Which of the following is
an aspect of sensation seeking behavior?
- of the above- comprise SSB
Which of the following can
be said about sensation seekers?
They have low levels of monoamine oxidase.- it maintains a proper level of neurotransmitters
- They have a low intolerance for ambiguity. (In other words, they have a high tolerance for ambiguity)- may be more inclined to go up and ask a person out
- that they like, they just go for it
When Rafael and Sacha presented the results of the
data you all provided on the NEO and TIPI, they reported that the class average
of the Five Factor scores based on the NEO and TIPI:
Were consistently correlated within NEO but not within the TIPI
When Rafael presented the results of the data you
all provided on the Mini-K and D-20, your averaged Mini-K (Life History
Strategy) and D-20 (Delinquency) scores were:
Moderately negatively correlated with each other- the higher the life history the lower the delinquency
. Life History Strategies develop
during______________and are heavily influenced by __________________.
Phylogenetic and Ontogenetic time; genes and environment
- **Each of us have and do . Life History Strategies
- and are very much influenced by what happened in phylogenetic time our ancestors, Ontogenetic time influences this because it is out environment,
- which creates new Life Strategies
A substantial emphasis of Life History Theory is
that psychosocial (personality) traits are randomly assorted and based on our “random,” or unique, environments.
False- We think that our personality traits cluster in predictable ways into meaning profiles that are apart of our unique Life History Strategy
Behavioral theories are sometimes referred to as _________ theories.
Reinforcement involves drive ________.
- Dollard and Miller- The reduction in Tension and Drive that people have, and that it is a goal that people have (like hunger and horniness), reduction is reinforcing.
When a response is repeated
but it is no longer reinforced, ________ occurs.
- the graudual reduction or elimination of a tendency to perform a specific response
What is a Reinforcer?
Technically speaking, according to my lecture, a reward increases the tendency to do whatever act came before it.
What is a a Reward?
- A REWARD- marshmellow study (called them rewards)-they may or may not be
- rewards people sometimes don’t like marshmellows
What is the first step in the functional analysis of a behavioral problem?
Define and measure the frequency of problematic behaviors. (Must observe and record the reinforcing consequences, that appears to be maintaining that behavior)
Systematic desensitization can be useful in all of the following situations EXCEPT:
- A woman is trying to quit smoking.
- A boy is
- afraid of dogs.
- A man wants to
- stop biting his nails (he bites his nails because he has high anxiety).
- A woman is too
- nervous to fly on an airplane.
According to Lewinsohn,
why does depressive behavior perpetuate itself?
A. Depressed people experience relatively few reinforcing outcomes for their own efforts.
B. Depressive behavior is reinforced by the sympathy of others, so it is repeated until it ultimately alienates those who offer such sympathy.
C. They lack the social skills necessary to achieve positive results from their environment
D. All of the above
Behavioral psychologists are primarily concerned with the __________ causes of behavior.
Researchers have found that when individuals’ behaviors are changed through behavioral methods:
The individual’s functioning improves in other areas as well. (called Generalization)