Hormones

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Author:
CCdiamondqueen
ID:
82728
Filename:
Hormones
Updated:
2011-04-30 02:08:35
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Anatomy Physiology
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Description:
Hormones, glands secreting them, target tissues, actions, pathology, etc. (not quite complete yet)
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  1. ADH/aVP
    (AndiDiuretic Hormone/Vasopressin)
    • Secreted by: Hypothalamus
    • Stored/Released by: Posterior Pituitary
    • Target Tissue: Renal Tubule
    • Action: Signals RT to save/reabsorb HOH; signals Hypothalamus you are thirsty.
    • Pathology: Diabetes Insipidus = don't secrete enough ADH.
  2. OXYTOCIN (OT)
    (also called Pitocin)
    • Secreted by: Hypothalamus
    • Stored/Released by: Posterior Pituitary
    • Target Tissue: Uterus (others?)
    • Action: Causes smooth muscle in uterus to contract; aids in parturitions (labor&delivery)
    • Pathology: If hemmoraging occurs during parturition, stimulation of breasts may aid in release of OT to help.
  3. RELEASING HORMONES (FACTORS) OF THE HYPOTHALAMUS
    • SC = somatocrinin
    • TRF = thyrotropin releasing hormone
    • CRF = corticotropin releasing hormone
    • GnRF= gonadotropin releasing hormone
    • PRF = prolactin releasing hormone
  4. INHIBITING HORMONES (FACTORS) OF THE HYPOTHALAMUS
    • SS = somatostatin
    • PIF = prolactin inhibiting hormone
  5. SOMATOTROPIN (ST)
    includes: hCG; hST; bST
    • Secreted by: Anterior Pituitary
    • EXTRA: GH is a STRESS HORMONE
    • Target Tissue: Liver, primarily
    • Action: Stimulates Liver to secrete more hormones(Somatomedins:IGF-1&IGF-2)
    • Pathology: "mad cow", KURU, CJD; Giantism, Pituitary Dwarfism, Achondroplasia, Acromegaly, Simmond's Disease
  6. THYROTROPIN/THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE (TSH)
    • Secreted by: Anterior Pituitary
    • EXTRA: TSH is a PROTEIN
    • Target Tissue: Thyroid
    • Action: Stimulates Thyroid to grow, make hormones (produce TG), secrete Thyroid hormones (T3 & T4)
  7. ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN (ACTH)
    • Secreted by: Anterior Pituitary
    • EXTRA: ACTH is a STRESS HORMONE and a PROTEIN
    • Target Tissue: Adrenal Cortex
    • Action: Stimulates A/C to secrete glucocorticoids (dominant one is Cortisol)
  8. FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE (FSH)
    • Secreted by: Anterior Pituitary
    • EXTRA: Is a gonadotropin and a PROTEIN; In Females=LH, in Males=ICSH
    • Target Tissue: Follicles of gonads
    • Action: In Females: Stimulates primordial follicle to become Graafian; stimulates Graafian to secrete Estrogen; then causes Corpus Luteum (ruptured GF) to secrete Estrogen & Progesterone. In Males: causes Interstitial Cells of Leydig to secrete Testosterone.
  9. LUTEINIZING HORMONE (LH)
    • see also: FSH
    • Stimulates Primordial follicle to become Graafian follicle, Graafian to secrete estrogen, after GF ruptures it becomes Corpus Luteum which LH causes to secrete Estrogen & Progesterone.
  10. INTERSTITIAL CELL STIMULATION HORMONE (ICSH)
    • see also: FSH
    • Stimulates the small cells around the semenal tubules (called Interstitial Cells of Leydig) to secrete Testosterone.
  11. PROLACTIN (PRL)
    • Released after birth for lactation in mothers.
    • (not known what it does in men)
  12. MELANOCYTE STIMULATING HORMONE (MSH)
    • Secreted by: Pars Intermedia (of the Pituitary)
    • Can't find additional info...need to research.
  13. THYROGLOBIN (TG)
    • Secreted by: Thyroid
    • EXTRA: Is a Storage Hormone
    • TG===>T3 & T4===> Into the Blood
    • Synthesis of T7 =
    • Tyrosine + Iodine2 ===> T3 & T4
    • Target Tissue: ALL of them, ALL your life
  14. TRIIODOTHYRONINE (T3)
    • Secreted by: Thyroid
    • EXTRA: Is an AMINE (modified Amino Acid); Main Thyroid hormone in Adults
    • Target Tissue: ALL of them, ALL your life
  15. TETRAIODOTHYRONINE (T4)
    • Secreted by: Thyroid
    • EXTRA: Is an AMINE (modified Amino Acid); More importand in EMBRYOS; precursor of T3
    • Target Tissue: ALL of them, ALL your life
  16. T7 (just another way to write T3 & T4)
    • Secreted by: Thyroid
    • Target Tissue: ALL of them, ALL your life
    • Action: too many to memorize, but some are as follows:
    • Stimulates BIG TIME protein anabolism (synthesis); Important BIG TIME in growth; effect on Breast Tissue=won't lactate correctly without T7 & PRL; Stimulates Mitochondria for ATP (effects BMR); Stimulates gut to produce digestive juices so they can break down starches/glucose; Stimulates Pancreas to secrete more insulin to use on glucose; Increases rate of respiration to produce more O2 for ATP; Increases heart rate to increase blood flow to send O2 and stuff to organs; In Men: increased T7 decreases labido, decreased T7 causes Impotence; In Women: increased T7 causes Hypermenorrhea, decreased T7 causes Amenorrhea; Acute Stress causes decrease in T7, Ongoing Stress causes increase in T7.
    • Effect on CNS: Hyperthyroid = cranky/insomnia
    • Hypothyroid = "asleep at the wheel"
  17. CALCITONIN (CT)
    • Secreted by: Thyroid
    • Action: Decreases blood Ca++ levels
    • EXTRA: Is a PROTEIN - - doesn't fit the rule for catagorization.
  18. PARATHORMONE (PTH)
    Secreted by: Parathyroid (Usually four small endocrine glands embedded in the posterior surfaces of the lateral lobes of the Thyroid Gland.

    • More info needs to be researched.
  19. GLUCAGON
    • Secreted by: Alpha Cells of the Islets of Langerhans in Pancreas
    • EXTRA: made of 29 Amino Acids
    • Action: Stimulates liver GLYCOGENOLYSIS (glycogen==>glucose).
    • After glycogenolysis, glucagon stimulates liver to secrete Glucose into the blood. (Liver is the ONLY tissue capable of this)
    • Increases blood sugar levels; Prevents Hypoglycemia under everyday circumstances.
    • Stimulus for Secretion: (by liver) Hypoglycemia
    • Target Tissue: Liver (mainly)
  20. INSULIN
    • Secreted by: Beta cells in Pancreas
    • EXTRA: made of 51 Amino Acids; CRUCIAL in synthesis of PROTEINS; ONLY hormone in body that Lowers blood sugar.
    • Target Tissue: (main ones:) Muscle, Liver, Adipose
    • Action: Impacts wound repair, Antibody production, B-cells of Immune System, IGF 1&2 secretion, normal growth and development;Stimulate AT of AA and synthesis of Proteins; Increases uptake of glucose; stimulates glucose to glycogen; Stimulates Muscle to take glucose and convert to glycogen; Stimulates Adipose to take glucose and convert to Triglycerides.
    • ***EXTRA NOTES: Brain uses Glucose for ATP, All other cells can use Glucose, Amino Acids (muscles), or Fatty Acids (adipose) for ATP. ***
  21. EPINEPHRINE (EPI or E)
  22. NOREPINEPHRINE (NOR or NE)
  23. ALDOSTERONE
    (Steroid Hormone)
    • Secreted by: Adrenal Cortex (classified as a Mineralocorticoid, because it affects the metabolism of minerals)
    • Target Tissue: Renal Tubule
    • Action: Causes Na++ reabsorption from glomerular filtrate; Prevents K+ reabsorption from glomerular filtrate; Also causes retention of Na++ and H2O.
    • Stimulus for Secretion: Renin-angeotensin mechanism
  24. CORTISOL (also HYDROCORTISONE)
  25. ANDROGENS
    (Steroid Hormone)
    • Secreted by: Adrenal Cortex (both sexes)
    • Action: Causes axillary and pubic hair in females; necessary for normal labido in adult females
    • EXTRA: Similar to testosterone, but only 20% as powerful; Amount of adrenal androgens increases at puberty; Are Masculating Hormones.
    • Pathology: Androgenital System(?)
    • Does NOT occur in adult Males.
    • Adult Females: excessive secretion may cause masculinization= clitoral enlargement, male hair patterns, voice changes, male pattern baldness.
    • Female Children: excessive secretion may cause clitoral enlargement and other masculinizing characteristics.
    • Female Fetus: excessive secretion during pregnancy (before week 12 gestation) causes Female Pseudohermaphroditism:a genetic female, female ovaries, male-like genitalia.
    • Male Children: excessive secretion can cause precocious sexual development without development of testes.
  26. TESTOSTERONE
    • Secreted by: Testes
    • Action: Masculinization, stimulates puberty in males- semenal tubules to produce sperm; normal labido in women.
    • EXTRA: Is a STEROID
  27. ESTROGEN
  28. PROGESTERONE
  29. RELAXIN
    A PROTEIN
  30. HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN (hCG)
    A PROTEIN
  31. MELATONIN
    • Secreted by: Pineal Body
    • Not well understood in mammals.
    • Possible actions:
    • May have an effect on "biological clocks" (indogeonous rhythms).
    • May control onset of puberty by inhibiting GnRF.
    • Secretion is high at night, low in daylight.
    • EXTRA: named because it lightens the skin of tadpoles (melanophores).
  32. THYMOSIN
    • Secreted by: Thymus
    • Action: In general these hormones aid in the development of the immune system.
    • This is one of several hormones isolated from the Thymus.

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