Female reproductive system

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halvob
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Female reproductive system
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2011-05-01 14:52:12
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Med Terms Ch 15
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  1. cervic/o
    neck or cervix
  2. colp.o, vagin/o
    vagina
  3. episi/o, vulv/o
    vulva (covering)
  4. gynec/o
    woman
  5. hyster/o, metr/o, uter/o
    uterus
  6. lact/o
    milk
  7. mast/o, mamm/o
    breast
  8. men/o
    menstruation
  9. obstetr/o
    midwife
  10. oophor/o, ovari/o
    ovary
  11. ov/i, ov/o
    egg
  12. pelv/i
    pelvis; hip bones
  13. salping/o
    uterine (fallopian) tube; also, eustachian tube
  14. toc/o
    labor or birth
  15. -arche
    beginning
  16. uterus
    womb; a pear-shaped organ in the pelvic ccavity in which the embryo and fetus develops
  17. fundus
    upper portion of the uterus above the entry to the uterine tubes
  18. endometrium
    lining of the uterus, which is shed approximately every 28 to 30 days in a nonpregnant female during mestruation
  19. myometrium
    muscular wall of the uterus
  20. uterine tubes/ fallopian tubes
    tubes extending from each side fo the uterus toward the ovary that provide a passage for ova to the uterus
  21. adnexa
    uterine tubes and ovaries (uterine appendages)
  22. right uterine appendage
    right tube and ovary
  23. left uterine appendage
    left tube and ovary
  24. ovary
    one of two glands located on each side of the pelvic cavity that produce ova and female sex hormones
  25. cervix
    neck of the uterus
  26. cervical os
    opening of the cervix to the uterus
  27. vagina
    tubular passageway from the cervix to the outside of the body
  28. vulva
    external gentalia of the female
  29. labia
    folds of tissue on either side of the vaginal opening; known as the labia majora and labia minora
  30. clitoris
    female erectile tissue in the anterior portion of the vulva
  31. hymen
    fold of mucous membrane that encircles the entrance to the vagina
  32. introitus
    entrance to the vagina
  33. Bartholin glands
    two glands located on either side of the vaginal opening that secrete a lubricant during intercourse
  34. perineum
    region between the vulva and anus
  35. mammary glands
    two glands in the female breasts that are capable of producing milk
  36. mammary papilla
    nipple
  37. areola
    dark-pigmented area around the nipple
  38. embryo
    the developing organism from fertilization to the end of the eight week
  39. fetus
    the developing organism from the ninth week to birth
  40. placenta
    vascular organ that develops in the uterine wall during pregnancy to provide nourishment for the fetus
  41. amnion/amniotic sac
    innermost of the membranes surrounding the embryo in the uterus, filled with amniotic fluid
  42. amniotic fluid
    fluid within the amniotic sac that surrounds and protects the fetus
  43. meconium
    intestinal discharges of the fetus that form the first stools in the newborn
  44. amenorrhea
    absence of menstruaiton
  45. dysmenorrhea
    painful menstruation
  46. oligomenorrhea
    scanty menstrual period
  47. anovulation
    absence of ovulation
  48. dyspareunia
    painful intercourse
  49. leukorrhea
    abnormal white or yellow vaginal discharge
  50. menorrhagia
    excessive bleeding at the time of menstruation (menses)
  51. metrorrhagia
    bleeding from the uterus at any time other than normal menstruation
  52. oligo-ovulation
    irregular ovulation
  53. cervicitis
    inflammation of the cervix
  54. congenital anomalies/ congenital irregularities
    birth defects that cause abnormal development of an organ or a structure
  55. dermoid cyst
    congenital tumor composed of displaced embryonic tissue; typically found in an ovary and usually benign
  56. displacement of uterus
    displacement of the uterus from its normal position
  57. anteflexion
    abnormal forward bending of the uterus
  58. retroflexion
    abnormal backward bending of the uterus
  59. retroversion
    backward turn of the whole uterus; also called tipped uterus
  60. andometriosis
    condition characterized by migration of portions of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity
  61. endometritis
    inflammation of t he endometrium
  62. fibroid/ fibromyoma/ leiomyoma
    benign tumor in the uterus composed of smooth muscle and fibrous conenctive tissue
  63. fistula
    abnormal passage, such as from one hollow organ to another
  64. rectovaginal fistula
    abnormal opening between the vagina and rectum
  65. vesicovaginal fistula
    abnormal opening between the bladder and vagina
  66. cervical neoplasia
    abnormal development of cervical tissue cells
  67. cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)
    potentially cancerous abnormality of epithelial tissue of the
  68. cervical neoplasia
    abnormal development of cervical tissue cells
  69. cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)
    potentially cancerous abnormality of epithelial tissue of the cervix, graded according to the extent of abnormal cell formation
  70. cervical dysplasia
    • CIN1; mild dysplasia
    • CIN2; moderate dysplasia
    • CIN3; severe dysplasia
  71. carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the cervix
    malignant cell changes of the cervix that are localized, without any spread to adjacent structures
  72. menopause
    cessation of menstrual periods caused by lack of ovarian hormones
  73. oophoritis
    inflammation of one or both ovaries
  74. parovarian cyst
    cyst of the uterine tube (Fallopian tube)
  75. pelvic adhesions
    scarring of tissue within the pelvic cavity resulting from endometriosis, infection, or injury
  76. pelvic floor relaxation
    relaxation of supportive ligaments of the pelvic organs
  77. cystocele
    pouching of the bladder into the vagina
  78. rectocele
    pouching of the rectum into the vagina
  79. enterocele
    pouching sac of peritoneum between the vagina and the rectum
  80. urethrocele
    pouching of the urethra into the vagina
  81. prolapse
    descent of the uterus down the vaginal canal
  82. salpingitis
    inflammation of the fallopian tube
  83. vaginitis
    inflammaiton of the vagina with redness, sweling and irritation; often caused by a specific organism, such as Candida (yeast) or Trichomonas (sexually transmitted parasite)
  84. atrophic vaginitis
    thinning of the vagina and loss of moisture b/c of depletion of estrogen, which causes inflammation of tissue
  85. vaginosis
    infection of the vagina, with little or no inflammation, characterized by a milk-like discharge and an unpleasant odor; also known as nonspecific vaginitis
  86. chlamydia
    most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection; often occurs with no symptoms and is treated only after it has spread, such as after causing PID
  87. gonorrhea
    contagious inflammation of the genital mucous membranes caused by invasion of the gonococcus Neisseria gonorrhea; the term refers to the urethral discharge characteristic of the infection, which was first thought to be a leakage of semen
  88. syphilis
    infectious disease caused by a spirochete transmitted via direct, intimate contact and that may involve any organ or tissue over time; usually manifests first on the skin, with the appearance of small, painless, red papules that erod and form bloodless ulcers called chancres
  89. hepatitis B virus (HBV)
    virus that causes an inflammation of the liver; transmitted through any body fluid, including vaginal secretions, semen, and blood
  90. herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)
    virus that causes ulcer-like lesions of the genital and anorectal skin and mucosa; after the initial infection, the virus lies dormant in the nerve cell root and may recur at times of stress
  91. human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
    virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), permitting various opportunistic infections, malignancies, and neurologic diseases; contracted through exposure to contaminated blood or body fluid
  92. human papilloma virus (HPV)
    virus transmitted by diect sexual contact; infection can minifest on the skin or mucous membranes of the genitals
  93. condyloma acuminatum
    lesion that appears as a result of human papilloma virus; on the skin, the lesions appear as cauliflower-like warts, and on mucous membranes, they have a flat appearance; also known as venereal or genital warts
  94. adenocarcinoma of the breast
    malignant tumor of glandular breast tissue
  95. amastia
    absece of a breast
  96. fibrocystic breasts
    benign condition of the breast consisting of fibrous and cystic changes that render the tissue more dense; patient feels painful lumps that fluctuate with menstrual periods
  97. gynecomastia
    development of mammary glands in the male caused by altered hormone levels
  98. hypermastia/macromastia
    abnormally large breasts
  99. hypomastia/micromastia
    unusually small breasts
  100. mastitis
    inflammation of the breast; most commonly occurs in women who are breastfeeding
  101. polymastia
    presence of more than two breasts
  102. polythelia/ supernumerary nipples
    presence of more than one nipple on a breast
  103. biopsy
    removal of tissue for microscopic pathologic examination
  104. aspiration biopsy/ needle biopsy
    needle draw of tissue or fluid from a cavity for cytologic examination
  105. endoscopic biopsy
    removal of a specimen for biopsy during an endoscopic procedure
  106. excisional biopsy
    removal of an entire lesion for microscopic examination
  107. incisional biopsy
    removal of a piece of suspicious tissue for microscopic examination
  108. stereotactic breast biopsy
    use of x-ray imaging, a specialized stereotactic frame, and a computer to calculate, precisely locate, and direct a needle into a breast lesion to remove a core specimen for biopsy
  109. sentinel node breast biopsy
    biopsy of the sentinel node in a breast with early cancer to determine metastases and, if no malignancy is found, to avoid the extensive removal of axillary nodes, which causes lymphedema
  110. colposcopy
    examination of the vagina and cervix using a coloscope, a specialized microscope which often has a camera attachment for photographs; used to document findings and for follow-up treatments
  111. hysteroscopy
    use o fa hysteroscope to examine the intrauterine cavity for assessment of abnormalities
  112. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    use of nonionizing images to detect gynecologic conditions or to stage tumors arising from the endometrium or cervix
  113. papanicolaou (pap) smear
    study of cells collected from the cervix to screen for cancer and other abnormalities
  114. radiography
    x-ray imaging
  115. hysterosalpingogram
    x-ray of the fallopian tubes after injection of a contrast medium through the cervix; used to determine tubal patency
  116. mammogram
    low-dose x-ray imaging of breast tissue to detect neoplasms
  117. pelvic sonography
    ultrasound imaging of the female pelvis
  118. endovaginal sonogram/ transvaginal sonogram
    ultrasound image of the uterus, tubes, and ovaries made with the ultrasonic transducer within the vagina to detect conditions such as extopic pregnancy or missed abortion
  119. sonohysterogram/ hysterosonogram/ saline infusion sonogram
    transvaginal sonographic image made as sterile saline is injected into the uterus; used to assess uterine pathology or to determine tubal patency
  120. transabdominal sonogram
    ultrasound image of the lower abdomen, including the bladder, uterus, tubes, and ovaries to detect conditions such as cysts and tumors
  121. adhesiolysis/ adhesiotomy
    breaking down or severing of pelvic adhesions
  122. cervical conization
    removal of a cone-shaped portion of the cervix
  123. colporrhapy
    suture to repair the vagina
  124. colporrhaphy anterior repair
    repair of a cystocele
  125. colporrhaphy posterior repair
    repair of a rectocele
  126. colporrhaphy A&P repair
    anterior and posterior repair of cystocele and rectocele
  127. cryosurgery
    method of destroying tissue by freezing; used for treating dysplasia and early cancers
  128. dilation and curettage (D&C)
    dilation of the cervix and scraping of the endometrium to control bleeding, to obtain tissue for biopsy, or to remove polyps or products of conception
  129. hysterectomy
    removal of the uterus
  130. abdominal hysterectomy
    removal of the uterus through an incision in the abdomen
  131. vaginal hysterectomy
    removal of the uterus through the vagina
  132. total hysterectomy
    removal of the uterus and the cervix
  133. laparoscopy
    inspection of the abdominal or pelvic cavity with a laparoscope, which is an endoscope used to examine the abdominal and pelvic regions
  134. laparoscopic surgery
    surgical procedures within the abdominal or pelvic region using a laparoscope
  135. laser surgery
    use of a laser to destroy lesions or to dissect or cute tissue; used frequently in gynecology
  136. loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP)
    use of electrosurgical or radio waves transformed through a loop-configured electrosurgical device to treat precancerous cervical lesions by simultaneous excisional biopsy and treatment of affected tissue dysplasia or human papilloma virus
  137. myomectomy
    excision of fibroid tumors
  138. oophorectomy
    excision of an ovary
  139. ovarian cystectomy
    excision of an ovarian cyst
  140. salpingectomy
    excision of a uterine tube
  141. bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy
    excision of both uterine tubes and ovaries
  142. salpingotomy
    incision into a fallopian tube; often performed to remove an ectopic pregnancy
  143. salpingostomy
    creation of an opening in the fallopian tube to open a blockage
  144. tubal ligation
    sterilization of a woman by cutting and tying (ligating) the uterine tubes
  145. lumpectomy
    excision of a breast tumor w/out removing any other tissue or lymph nodes; usually followed by radiation or chemotherapy if the tumor is cancerous
  146. mastectomy
    removal of a breast
  147. simple mastectomy
    removal of an entire breast but with the underlying muscle and axillary lymph nodes left intact
  148. radical mastectomy
    removal of an entire breast along with the underlying chest muscles and axillary lymph nodes
  149. modified radical mastectomy
    removal of an entire breast and lymph nodes of the axilla
  150. mammoplasty
    surgical reconstruction of a breast
  151. augmentation mammoplasty
    reconstruction to enlarge the breast, often by insertion of an implant
  152. reduction mammoplasty
    reconstruction to remove excessive breast tissue
  153. mastopexy
    elevation of pendulous breast tissue
  154. chemotherapy
    treatment of malignancies, infections, and other diseases with chemical agents that destroy selected cells or impair their ability to reproduce
  155. radiation therapy
    treatment of neoplastic disease using radiation to deter the proliferation of malignant cells
  156. hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
    use of a hormone to replace a deficiency or to regulate production
  157. hormonal contraceptives
    hormones used to prevent conception by suppressing ovulation
  158. oral contraceptive pill (OCP)
    birth control pill
  159. contraceptive injection
    injection of a contraceptive hormone into the body
  160. contraceptive implant
    insertion of a contraceptive capsule under the skin to provide a continual infusion over an extended period
  161. barrier contraceptives
    products that provide a physical barrier to prevent conception
  162. intrauterine device (IUD)
    contraceptie device inserted into the uterus that prevents implantation of a fertilized egg
  163. spermicidals
    creams, jellies, lotions, or foams containing agents that kill sperm
  164. gravida
    a pregnant woman; gravida followed by a number indicates the number of pregnancies
  165. nulligravida
    having never been pregnant
  166. primigravida
    first pregnancy
  167. para
    to bear; a woman who has produced one or more viable offspring; para followed by a number indicates the number of times a pregnancy has resulted in a single or multiple birth
  168. nullipara
    a woman who has not borne a child
  169. primipara
    first delivery
  170. multipara
    a woman who has given birth to two or more children
  171. cervical effacement
    progressive obliteration of the endocervical canal during delivery
  172. estimated date of confinement (EDC)
    expected date for delivery of the baby; normally 280 days or 40 weeks from last menstrual period (LMP)
  173. meconium staining
    presence of meconium in amniotic fluid
  174. ruptured membranes
    rupture of the amniotic sac, usually at onset of labor
  175. macrosomia
    large-bodies baby commonly seen in diabetic pregnancies
  176. polyhydramnios
    excessive amniotic fluid
  177. abortion (AB)
    expulsion of the products of conception before the fetus is viable (able to live outside the uterus)
  178. spontaneous abortion (SAB)
    miscarriage; naturally occuring expulsion of the products of conception
  179. habitual abortion
    spontaneous abortion occurring in three or more consecutive pregnancies
  180. incomplete abortion
    incomplete expulsion of the products of conception
  181. missed abortion
    death of a fetus or embryo within the uterus that is not naturally expelled after death
  182. threatened abortion
    bleeding with the threat of miscarriage
  183. cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD)
    condition preventing normal delivery through the birth canal; either the baby's head is too large or the birth canal is too small
  184. eclampsia
    true toxemia of pregnancy characterized by high blood pressure, albuminuria, edema of the legs and feet, severe headaches, dizinness, convulsions, and coma
  185. preeclampsia/ pregancy-induced hypertenstion (PIH)
    toxemia of pregnancy characterized by high blood pressue, albuminuria, edema of the legs and feet, and puffiness of the face, w/out convulsion or coma
  186. ectopic pregnancy
    implantation of the fertilized egg outside the uterine cavity, often in the tube or ovary, or, rarely, in the abdominal cavity
  187. erythroblastosis fetalis
    disorder that results from the incompatibility of a fetus with an Rh-positive blood factor an a mother with an Rh-negative blood factor, causing red blood cell destruction in the fetus; this condition necessitates a blood transfusion to save the fetus
  188. Rh factor
    presence, or lack, of antigens on the surface of red blood cells that may cause a reaction between the blood fo the mother and the fetus, resulting in fetal anemia, which causes erythroblastosis fetalis
  189. Rh positive
    presence of antigens
  190. Rh negative
    absence of antigens
  191. hyperemesis gravidarum
    severe nausea and vomiting in pregnancy that can cause severe dehydration in the mother and fetus
  192. meconium aspiration
    fetal aspiration of amniotic fluid containing meconium
  193. placenta previa
    displaced attachment of the placenta in the lower region of the uterine cavity
  194. abruptio placentae
    premature detachment of a normally situated placenta
  195. chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
    sampling of placental tissue for microscopic and chemical examination to detect fetal abnormalities
  196. amniocentesis
    aspiration of a small amount of amniotic fluid for analysis of possible fetal abnormalities
  197. fetal monitoring
    use of an electronic device for simltaneous recording of fetal heart rate and uterine contractions
  198. pelvimetry
    obstetric measurement of the pelvis to evaluate proper conditions for vaginal delivery
  199. pregnancy test
    test performed on urine or blood to detect the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin hormone, which indicated pregnancy
  200. pelvic sonography
    ultrasound imaging of the female pelvis
  201. endovaginal sonogram/ transvaginal sonogram
    ultrasound image of the uterus, tubes, and ovaries made after introduction of an ultrasonic transducer within the vagina; useful for detecting pathology
  202. obstetric sonogram
    ultrasound image of the pregnant uterus to determine fetal development
  203. cesarean section (c-section)
    surgical delivery of a baby via an incision through the abdomen and into the uterus
  204. dilation and evacuation (D&E)
    dilation of the cervix and removal of the products of conception; most commonly performed in the second trimester of pregnancy, after a missed abortion
  205. epistotomy
    incision of the perineum to facilitate delivery of a baby
  206. amnioinfusion
    intro of a solution into the amniotic sac; an isotonic solution is most commonly used to relieve fetal distress
  207. therapeutic abortion (TAB)
    abortion induced by mechanical means or by drugs for medical reasons
  208. version
    manual method for reversing the position of the fetus, usually done to facilitate delivery
  209. external version
    abdominal manipulation
  210. internal version
    intravaginal manipulation
  211. abortifacient
    drug that causes abortion
  212. oxytocin
    hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that causes myometrial contraction; used to induce labor
  213. Rh immune globulin
    immunizing agent given to an Rh-negative mother within 72 hrs after delivering an Rh-positive baby to suppress the Rh immune response
  214. tocolytic agent
    drug used to stop labor contractions
  215. AB
    abortion
  216. AIDS
    acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
  217. A&P
    anterior and posterior
  218. Bx
    biopsy
  219. CIN
    cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
  220. CIS
    carcinoma in situ
  221. CPD
    cephalopelvic disproportion
  222. C-section
    cesarean section
  223. CVS
    chorionic villus sampling
  224. D&C
    dilation and curettage
  225. D&E
    dilation and evacuation
  226. EDC
    estimated date of cofinement
  227. EDD
    estimated date of delivery
  228. GYN
    gynecology
  229. HBV
    hepatitis B virus
  230. HIV
    human immunodeficiency virus
  231. HPV
    human papilloma virus
  232. HRT
    hormone replacement therapy
  233. HSV-2
    herpes simplex virus type-2
  234. IUD
    intrauterine device
  235. LEEP
    loop electrosurgical excision procedure
  236. LLETZ
    large-loop excision of the transformation zone
  237. LMP
    last menstrual period
  238. MRI
    magnetic resonance imaging
  239. OB
    obstetrics
  240. OCP
    oral contraceptive pill
  241. Pap
    papanicolaou (smear)
  242. PID
    pelvice inflammatory disease
  243. PIH
    pregnancy-induced hypertension
  244. SAB
    spotaneous abortion
  245. STD
    sexually transmitted disease
  246. TAB
    therapeutic abortion

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