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what causes post op sensitivity with amalgmas?
- expanding amalgam
- dentinal tubules exposed
Wha causes corrosion of amalgam?
chemical reaction between amalgam and substances in saliva or food resulting in OXIDATION of amalgam
how do you prevent corrosion of amalgam?
using high copper alloys (no gamma 2 phase) or polish low copper amalgams
what is the purpose of merucry?
causes amalgamation and binds it all together
what is murcury's most dangerous form?
what componenets are needed to produce galvanism?
two dissimilar metals
what causes expansion in amalgam? 3
- compostion of alloy particles
- ratio of mercury-alloy powder (by weight)
- saliva/moisture contamination
why do you need to polish amalgam?
to reduce the rate of corrosion
what does polishing remove? 4
- surface tarnish
how does an amalgam get retention in a tooth? 3
- undercut walls
- mechanical retention
how do you detect overhangs
what is the relationship of zinc and corrosion of amalgam?
zinc INHIBITS corrosion by reducing oxidation of other metals
what are the three noble metals?
which noble metal is the most corrosive resistant?
which noble metal has good gorrosive resistance, increases hardness of alloy and is less expensive than gold?
____% noble = no gold requirement
high noble = ___ % noble/ _____% gold by weight
when is the best time of day to view esthetic materials?
when viewing esthetic materials a natural _____ light is great
fluorescent lights=_____ and incandenscent lights= _____
- more blue light
- more yellow light
t/f you want to take the shade in the light the patient is seen in most often
the dental unit light ______ shade brightness and _____ color intensity
what are the two fluoride RELEASING composites
- glass ionomers
- hybrid (resin-modified) ionomer
what are the componenets of dental compostie/resin materials?
- organic resin matrix (Bis-GMA or bisphenol-A, glycidal methacrylate, UDMA-urethrane dimethacrylte)
- inorganic SILICA filler
- SILANE coupling agent
what are themost common filler particles?
what is the purpose of fillers?
make resin stronger, reduce shrinkage and more wear resistant
what is added to resin for radiopacity?
the ____ the filler the stronger and more ____ ____ the resin will be
what is the advantage of light cured composites over self cured composites?
light cured are LESS porous than self cured
what causes post op sensitivity in composties?
leakage, shrinkage (large composite increments)
t/f adjusting water/powder ration is only recommended to increase the working time of gypsum products
false-adjusting water/powder ration is NOT recommended-follow manufacturers instructions
what increases/decreases work and setting time?
- water temperature
- cold water=longer set
- warm water=shorter set
how is the setting time affected by cold water? warm water?
- cold water=longer set
- warm water=shorter set
what is being described: beta, weaker, irregular, porous particle, used for diagnostic casts, more soluble than stone, white in color, W/P=.45
plaster (TYPE II)
what is being described: alpha, strongest, less water needed, less porous, better than plaster, working casts/study model, white or yellow color, takes less water to turn into dihydrate, W/P=.30
stone (TYPE III)
what are the four effects of air incorporated into gypsum?
- air exposure ACCELERATES set
- prolonged exposure RETARDS set
- water absorption
- surface irregularities
what is the initial set of regualr set gypsum?
7-9 minutes from start to mix
what is the working time for the intial set of gypsum?
6-8 minutes to pour impression
how can you tell if the initial set has begun with gypsum?
loss of glossy appearance
what type of reaction is the final set of gypsum?
how long must the regular set gypsum set before separation?
at how many hours is the regular set gypsum 3x harder
when can you disinfect regular set gypsum?
24 hours=3x harder
t/f failure to separate modle within 1 hour will have detrimental effects on characteristics of model
what impression material is used for: study models, preliminary impression for complete dentures, partial denture framework
opposing casts for crown and bridge treatments
reparis of partial and complete dentures, provisional restorations, custom trays for fluoride or bleaching, sports protector andnight guards, removable orthodontic appliances?
what is the most widely used impression material?
what is irreversible hydrocolloid impression material not good for? 5
- crown and bridge
- titanium remobable partial dentures
which impression material is agar?
what impression material is alginate?
what are the five elastic impression materials?
- reversible (agar) hydrocolloid
- irreversible (alginate) hydrocolloid
- plysulfides (elastomer)
- silicone rubber (elastomer)
- polyether (elastomer)
what are the four types of inelastic impression materials?
- type I gypsum
- zinc-oxide eugenol
what is used as a disinfectant for impression materials?
sodium hypochlorite and iodophors
how long should an impression be disinfected for before the pour?
what are the four purposes of diagnostic casts?
- study model/diagnostic casts
- reproduce preparations for final restoration
- postive reproduction of teeth and tissues
- impression=negation reproduction
how is gelation time increased or decreased?
what state is gelation if chilled? heated?
- chilled=gle, semisolid (jell-o)
- heated=reverse into a liquid suspension (sol)
what retards the set of gypsum products?
borax and agar
what are the ingredients of reversible hydrocolloid (agar)? 4
- seweend extract
- potassium sulfate
- alkyl benzoate
what is the antifungal in agar?
what is the gel strengthener in agar?
what are the ingredients of irreversible hydorcolloid (alginate)? 2
- potassium or sodium alginate
- seweed derivative
what is added to keep alginate from interfering with the set of gypsum productes?
how do you store an alginate impression before pouring?
- rinse and disinfect 10 minutes
- wrap impression in wet paper towel
- place in ziploc bag expressed of air
how quickly should you pour an impression?
pour withing one hour
the sol to gel state is a ____ reaction ONLY, _____ dependent
wghat happens during hysteresis when the reversible hydrocolloid is cooled?
turns to a solid or gel
what happens to the reversible hydrocolloid during syneresis when left standing?
gels contact and squeeze out, liquid forming an exudate on the surface (susceptible to imbibition-absorb moisture)
what are the three advantages to reversible hydrocolloids?
- moist field
- inexpensive (exept for equipment(
what are the disadvantages of reversible hydrocolloids? 3
- dimensionally unstable -pour immediately after disinfection
- only ONE pour
- deformation upon hard compression
what are the 2 advantages for irreversible hydrocolloids?
- not temp dependent
- popular for study models
what are the disadvantages for irreversible hydrocolloids?