Phonetics Midterm

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Phonetics Midterm
2010-02-26 20:13:26
Terms Definitions

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  1. Vocoids
    • vowels and glides
    • vs contoids: every other consonant
  2. Lateral
    one or both sides of tongue are lowered
  3. Central
    • any consonant pronounced without any of the sides of the tongue lowered
    • it is all other consonant and vowel (especially rhotics)
  4. Free variation vs Complementary distribution
    • Free variation: allophones or phonemes that occur in the same context
    • Complementary distribution: when they happen in different contexts
  5. Syllabic consonants
  6. When there is a consonant cluster that cannot be syllabified as a
    • branching onset/coda and there is no adnacent vowel to break up the cluster
    • Happens in unstressed syllables only, rhotics can be syllabic in
    • stressed and unstressed syllables
    • ie: glimmer → /glɪmɹ/ → /glɪmɚ/
  7. Aspiration vs Release & Fortis Release
    • Aspirations:
    • Release:
    • Fortis release:
  8. Phonemic Differences vs Allophonic Differences
    • PD: differences in sound which distinguishes meaning
    • AD: differences within phonemes, depending on the context
  9. Underlying/Phonemic level vs Surface/Phonetic level
    • Phonemic Level: level of contrast/opposition
    • Phonetic Level: level of pronounciation
  10. Head-initial Diphtong
    head + off-glide
  11. Head-final diphtong
    on-glide + head
  12. Fake diphtong
    • it can be predicted or derived by a rule
    • if you don't pronounce the ɪ in eɪ, we still understand the
    • word
    • the eɪ is not a phoneme unlike true diphthongs
  13. Approximants