Card Set Information

2011-04-30 18:24:03

Cartilage and Bone Connective Tissue
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  1. Functions of cartilage include which of the following?
    • supporting soft tissues
    • providing a gliding surface at articulations
    • providing a model for the formation of most bones
    • all of the above
  2. Which selection correctly pairs the type of cartilage with one of its locations
    in the body?
    hyaline cartilage, trachea
  3. Fibrocartilage is found in which of these structures?
    intervertebral discs and pubic symphysis
  4. Functions of bone include all of the following except
    transport of materials
  5. Hemopoiesis is the process of
    blood cell production
  6. ____________ ossification produces the flat bones of the skull, some of the
    facial bones, the mandible, and the central part of the clavicle.
  7. Through the process of endochondral ossification, a fetal ____________ model
    transforms into bone.
    hyaline cartilage
  8. Which bone cells secrete osteoid (the initial semisolid form of bone matrix)?
  9. Which of the following are components of compact bone, but not of an
    perforating canals and circumferential lamellae
  10. At each end of a long bone is an expanded, knobby region called the
  11. Long bones such as the humerus have solid external walls of ____________ bone,
    with ____________ bone found primarily within the epiphyses.
    compact, spongy
  12. Which of the following does not accurately describe spongy bone?
    contains slightly larger osteons than compact bone
  13. Yellow bone marrow contains a large proportion of
    fatty tissue
  14. The endosteum
    • covers all internal surfaces of a bone, such as the medullary cavity
    • is active during bone growth, repair, and remodeling
    • is an incomplete cellular membrane
    • all of the above
  15. All of the following occur during appositional bone growth except
    growth occurs primarily in the cartilage of the epiphyseal plates
  16. As with cartilage growth, a long bone's growth in length is called
    epiphyseal plate
  17. A typical bone has which of the following major sets of blood vessels?
    nutrient, metaphyseal, and periosteal
  18. Which of the following is a thyroid gland hormone that encourages calcium
    deposition from blood into bone and inhibits osteoclast activity?
  19. Stimulated by sex hormones, bone growth accelerates dramatically at the time of
  20. Dietary factors necessary for normal bone growth include
    vitamins A, C, and D
  21. ____________ produce new bone, while ____________ resorb bone.
    osteoblasts, osteoclasts
  22. Bone remodeling normally involves which of the following?
    • changes in bone architecture and the skeleton's total mineral deposits
    • activity at both the periosteal and endosteal surfaces of a bone
    • continual deposition and removal of bone tissue
    • all of the above
  23. Aging affects bone tissue in which of the following ways?
    • tensile strength decreases and bones become brittle
    • bones demineralize and become thinner and weaker
    • both of the above
  24. What is broken in a Colles fracture?
    distal end of the radius
  25. Tiny, seed-shaped bones along the tendons of some muscles are classified as
    • sesamoid bones
    • short bones
    • both b and c
  26. A typical example of a long bone is the
  27. Vertebrae are classified as
    irregular bones
  28. In flat bones of the skull, a region of ____________ is sandwiched between two
    layers of compact bone.
  29. Sensory nerves innervate which parts of a bone?
    • the bone matrix and marrow cavity
    • the periosteum and endosteum
    • both a and b
  30. Which of the following tissues is found in the fewest body locations?
    elastic cartilage
  31. During early embryonic development, cartilage grows both internally and along
    its periphery. The former is called ____________ growth; the latter,
    interstitial; appositional
  32. One of the main differences between the two growth patterns of cartilage is the
    source of new
  33. Why does all growth normally cease in mature cartilage?
    • the matrix of mature cartilage is not able to expand
    • cartilage has no blood supply and thus no energy source for growth
    • both a and b
  34. Chondrocytes die and stem cells in the perichondrium form osteoblasts during
    which of these processes?
    endochondral ossification
  35. Calcification occurs in ____________ during dermal ossification but in
    ____________ during endochondral ossification.
    osteoid; hyaline cartilage
  36. A layer of dense irregular connective tissue typically covers all of the
    following except
  37. Which of the following is not a function of periosteum?
    provides a smooth surface for articulation between bones
  38. Osteons are to dense bone as ____________ are to cancellous
  39. By interconnecting the lacunae and the blood supply, ____________ allow
    osteocytes to transfer nutrients and wastes through an otherwise impenetrable
    solid matrix.
  40. Arrange the following from lowest to highest in terms of their contribution to
    the mass of bone tissue: (1) collagen fibers; (2) osteocytes, osteoblasts, and
    osteoclasts; and (3) calcium phosphate.
    2, 1, 3
  41. What change in physical structure would result from an excess of organic
    components relative to the amount of hydroxyapatite in the matrix of a bone?
    increased flexibility
  42. A major difference between compact and spongy bone is that
    there are no osteons in spongy bone
  43. During bone remodeling, if the rate of osteolysis exceeds the rate of
    osteogenesis, the bone becomes
  44. Under what circumstances does fibrocartilage normally ossify?
    fracture repair
  45. While eating fried chicken from a popular chain restaurant, David notices that
    the ends of the bones in the wing and drumstick are smooth, featureless, and
    covered with a thick cap of cartilage. What is the most likely explanation?
    the chicken was so young that the bones were not fully ossified
  46. Lengthwise bone growth involves the final steps of
    endochondral ossification
  47. In interstitial bone growth, what happens when the zone of ossification
    overtakes the zone of resting cartilage?
    • the epiphyseal plate becomes the epiphyseal line
    • the epiphyseal plate becomes the epiphyseal line
    • the metaphysis converts from hyaline cartilage to bone
    • all of the above
  48. ____________ is a continual, hormonally controlled process that is essentially a
    race between osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
    bone remodeling
  49. Which types of fractures are inherently more likely in children than in adults?
    epiphyseal and greenstick
  50. The inadequate mineral deposition in bone caused by a vitamin D deficiency
    during childhood is called
  51. The two hormones that have opposite effects on the rate of osteolysis are
    parathyroid hormone and calcitonin
  52. Ironically, high levels of ____________ at puberty not only accelerate
    lengthwise bone growth but also trigger its ultimate end.
    sex hormones
  53. Arrange the following in order of the average age at which they complete
    ossification, from youngest to oldest: (1) clavicle; (2) lateral epicondyle of
    humerus; and (3) proximal radius.
  54. The immature cells that produce osteoid are called
  55. Hyaline cartilage is found in all of the following structures except the
    pubic symphysis
  56. A small space within compact bone housing an osteocyte is termed a
  57. Endochondral ossification begins with a______ model of bone.
    hyaline cartilage
  58. Production of new bone______ as a result of increased sex hormone production at
    increases rapidly
  59. An epiphyseal line appears when
    epiphyseal plate growth has ended.
  60. The condition of inadequate ossification that may accompany aging and is a
    result of reduced calcification is called
  61. A fracture of the distal end of the radius is a______ fracture.
  62. The femur is an example of a
    long bone
  63. A large, rough projection of a bone is termed a