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Area of Study: Development. Maintained that personality and ability depend almost entirely on genetic inheritance (human traits are inherited).
Area of Study: Development. Theory of evolution, survival of the fittest, origin of the species.
Area of Study: Introspection (the self-observation and reporting of conscious inner thoughts, desires and sensations). Psychology became the scientific study of conscious experience (rather than science).
Behaviorist; founder of Behaviorism- Did the study of generalization.
The subject of Watson's study on the generalization of fear. Conditioning subject to be afraid. He was classically conditioned to become afraid of furry white things through the use of rabbits accompanied by a loud noise.
Neo-Freudian; believed that childhood social, not sexual tensions are crucial for personality formation.
People had conscious and unconscious awareness- two layers of unconscious archetypes- personal/collective. Founder of Analytical Psychology. One of the first to study dream analysis.
- Three levels of traits:
- 1. Cardinal trait- dominant trait that characterizes your life
- 2. Central trait- one common to all people.
- 3. Secondary trait- surfaces in some situations and not others.
Rational Emotive Therapy. Focuses on altering client's patterns of irrational thinking to reduce maladaptive behaviour and emotions.
Hierarchy of needs- Needs at the lower level dominate and individual's motivation as long as they are unsatisfied. Once these needs are adequately met, the higher needs occupy the individual's attention.
Humanistic Psychology- the theory that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and potential for personal growth.
Operant Conditioning- Techniques to manipulate the consequences of an organism's behaviour in order to observe the effects of subsequent behaviour. See Also: Skinner's Box.
Classical Conditioning- an unconditional stimulus naturally elicits a reflexive behaviour called an anconditional response. But with repeated pairings with a neutral stimulus, the neutral stimulus will elicit the response. Dog Salivation, etc.
Disagreed with Skinner and said that there are an infinite number of sentences in a language. He said that humans have an inborn native ability to develop language.
- Four-stage theory of cognitive development:
- 1. Sensorimotor
- 2. Preoperational
- 3. Concrete Operational
- 4. Formal Operational
- He said that two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth-assimilation & accommodation.
People evolve through 8 stages over the life span. Each stage marked by psychological crisis that involves confronting "who am I".
- His theory states there are 3 levels of moral reasoning, and each level can be divided into 2 stages.
- 1. Pre-conventional
- 2. Conventional
- 3. Post-conventional.
- His theory focuses on moral reasoning rather than overt behaviour.
She maintained that Kolberg's work was developed only observing boys and overlooked potential differences between the habitual moral judgments of men and women.
This theory asserts that the perception of emotion is our awareness of our physiological response to emotion arousing stimuli. e.g. sight of coming car-> pounding heart-> fear.
An emotion-arousing stimulus triggers cognitive body responses simultaneously. E.g. arousal and emotion are simultaneous.
First person to have a frontal lobotomy. Gave psychology information on part of the brain that is involved with emotions, reasoning, etc.
Personality is determined to a large extent by genes. He used the terms Extroversion/Introversion.
To experience emotions, you must 1. be physically aroused 2. cognitively label arousal. (know the emotion before you experience it)
Mary Cover Jones
His hypothesis is that language determines the way we think.
- Triarchic theory of intelligence.
- 1. academic problem-solving intelligence
- 2. practical intelligence
- 3. creative intelligence
Theory of Multiple Intelligences.
Observational Learning. It allows you to profit immediately from teh mistakes and successes of others. His experiment had adult models punching BoBo dolls and then observed children whom watched this exhibit many of the same behaviours.
Law of effect (the relationship between behaviour and its consequences)- the principle that behaviour followed by favourable consequences becomes more likely. Behaviour followed by less likely consequences becomes less likely.
General I.Q. tests. A Frenchman designed a test that would identify slow learners in need of remedial help. It was not that valuable in America, as it was too culture bound.
Revised Binet's I.Q. test, and established norms for American children.
He established an intelligence test especially for adults. It became the WAIS, Weschler Intelligence Test for Adults.
He found that specific mental talents were highly correlated. He concluded that all cognitive abilities showed a common core which he labeled "g", for general ability.
He developed one of the first projective tests, the Inkblot test. The subject reads the inkblots and projects to the observer aspects of their personality. It uses 10 standardized inkblots.
Conducted the famous Stanford Prison experiment. It was conducted to study the power of social roles to influence people's behaviour. It proved people's behaviour depends to a large extent on the roles they are asked to play.
He, with a number of people from different walks of life conducted a mental hospital experiment to test the diagnosis hospitals make on new patients. He also wanted to see the impact on behaviour being a patient has. He proved that once you are diagnosed with a disorder, your care would not be very good in a mental hospital setting.
Study on conformity. His experiment had a subject unaware of his situation tested to see if he would conform if all the members of the group gave an incorrect answer. (the subject would usually conform and give an answer that they knew was incorrect, if that answer was given by all of the actors in the study)
Conducted a study on obedience, when he had a subject shock a patient to the extent that they would be seriously injuring the patient. ("the study requires that you continue...")
A German refugee who escaped Nazi opression. He designed an experiment to investigate the effects of different leadership styles on group functions. He wanted to find out if people were more productive under 3 different leadership styles- 1. autocratic 2. laizssez-faire 3. democratic. This is the study when he had the children do activities under the 3 conditions. The democratic style proved to be the most productive, as was expected.
Studied theory of attachment in infant Rhesus monkeys.
The theory that linked personality to physique on the grounds that both are governed by genetic endowment. Endomorphic- (large), Mesomorphic- (average), Ectomorphic- (skinny)
Psychoanalytical theory that focuses on the unconscious: Id, Ego, Superego.
Critical of Freud's theories. She said that personality is continually molded by current fears and impulses, rather than being determined solely by childhood experiences and instincts.
Mary Cover Jones
Systemic desensitization. She maintained that fear could be unlearned. We could teach Little Albert to be unafraid of rabbits.
Learned Helplessness is the giving up reation, the quitting response that follows the belief that whatever you do does not matter. The woman in Schindler's List who explains to Schindler that no matter what she does, she receives the same punishment.
The first to conduct a scientific study on forgetting: first, a rapid loss, followed by a gradual declining rate of loss.
Did a study of the activities of neurons in the visual cortex.
Young-Helmholz-Trichromatic theory of colour vision
3 types of colour receptors in the eye. (primary colors)
Clark Hull-Drive Theory
It maintains that the goal of all motivated behaviour is the reduction or alleviation of a drive state. It is the mechanism through which reinforcement operates.
Walter B. Cannon
He believed that the gastric activity in an empty stomach was the sole basis for hunger. Did an experiment by inserting balloon in subjects' stomachs.
The left frontal lobe that directs muscle movement involved in speech. He did his studies with a subject who could only speak one word, "Tan". The person damaged in this area has speech that makes sense but has difficulty speaking.
An area of the lef temporal lobe involved in language understanding. The person damaged in this area uses correct words, but they do not make sense.
He pioneered the first study on JND (just noticeable difference). It became Weber's law; the JND between stimuli is a constant fraction of the intensity of the standard stimulus. E.g. the bigger or more intense the standard stimulus, the larger the increment needed to get a JND. Room with 10 candles vs. one with 30 candles.
It states that the magnitude of a sensory experience is proportional to the number of JNDs that the stimulus causing the experiences above absolute threshold.
Her theory proposes that the terminally ill pass through a seqeunce of 5 stages. 1. Denial, 2. Anger/resentment, 3. Bargaining with God, 4. Depression, 5. Acceptance.
Mere expsure effect. It is possible to have preferences without inferences and to feel without knowing why.
He stated that the need to achieve varied in strength from person to person and influenced their tendency to approach success and evaluate their own performances. He devised the TAT-Thematic Appreciation Test along with Christiana D. Morgan. Subjects are asked to generate stories in response to ambiguous pictures. E.g. the person resting against the park bench.
He devised a way to measure H. Murray's theory "the need to achieve that varied in strength in different people and influenced their tencency to approach success and evaluate their own performances". He is credited with developing the scoring system for the TAT's use in assessing achievement motivation, not for the TAT itself.
The theory that facial expressions are universal.
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