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2011-04-30 19:27:05

Nervous Tissue
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  1. Structurally,
    the nervous system consists of which two subdivisions?
    central and peripheral

  2. Clusters of
    neuron cell bodies located outside the CNS are called

  3. Which
    functional division of the nervous system includes the SNS and ANS?

  4. In the PNS,
    components of the afferent division include
    sensory neurons

  5. Which effectors
    are innervated by visceral motor neurons?
    cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands

  6. The two
    distinct cell types that compose all nervous tissue are
    chromatophilic substance

  7. The slightly
    expanded tips of telodendria are called
    synaptic knobs

  8. The cytoplasm
    in a neuron cell body (or sometimes the entire cell body) is called the

  9. Structural
    categories of neurons include which of the following?
    unipolar, bipolar, and multipolar

  10. Neurons with
    numerous dendrites and a single axon are structurally classified as
    multipolar neurons

  11. Efferent
    neurons transmit nerve impulses
    from the CNS to muscles or glands

  12. Collectively,
    glial cells do all of the following except
    synthesize neurotransmitters and conduct nerve impulses

  13. The word root
    glia, as in "glial cells," most nearly means

  14. Which pair
    names only neuroglia of the central nervous system?
    ependymal cells and astrocytes

  15. Which
    description refers to oligodendrocytes?
    large, bulbous cells with slender cytoplasmic extensions

  16. The largest and
    most abundant of the CNS glial cells, ____________ help form the blood-brain

  17. Which types of
    glial cells are found in the peripheral nervous system?
    neurolemmocytes and satellite cells

  18. Which term
    describes the collection of lipids and proteins that may form a protective
    coating around an axon?

  19. Myelination
    affects nerve impulse conduction in which of the following ways?
    allows saltatory conduction from one neurofibril node to the next

  20. Axon
    regeneration in the PNS involves ____________ in a process known as Wallerian
    ependymal cells; neogenesis

  21. Nerves are
    bundles of parallel axons in the PNS that have three successive connective
    tissue wrappings, called the
    endoneurium, perineurium, and epineurium

  22. The point at
    which two excitable cells contact to exchange information is called a

  23. The synaptic
    knob of a neuron may contact another neuron anywhere except on its
    myelin sheath

  24. At a chemical
    synapse, the presynaptic membrane releases a signaling molecule called a

  25. Which one of
    the following is not a step in the conduction of a nerve impulse across a
    chemical synapse?
    • calcium ions entering the synaptic cleft cause the endocytosis of synaptic
    • vesicles

  26. The rate of
    conduction of a nerve impulse is influenced by the
    • The rate of
    • conduction of a nerve impulse is influenced by the

  27. Which
    description doesnot accurately characterize neuronal pools?
    have numerous types of circuits defined by structural features

  28. All of the
    following are types of neuronal circuits except

  29. In the embryo,
    the neural plate (which gives rise to most nervous tissue structures) develops

  30. What accounts
    for the gray color of gray matter?
    • presence of Nissl bodies
    • absence of myelin
    • both of the above

  31. Bundles of
    neurofilaments extending into dendrites and axons to provide structural support
    are called

  32. The phrase
    "terminally differentiated," as applied to mature neurons, means that they
    cannot divide mitotically to produce daughter cells

  33. Although they
    outnumber ____________ by as much as ten to one, ____________ account for only
    about half of the total volume of the nervous system.
    neurons; glial cells

  34. Their methods
    are different, but ____________ in the CNS and ____________ in the PNS perform
    similar functions.
    oligodendrocytes; neurolemmocytes

  35. Which glial
    cells behave much like certain leukocytes?

  36. Although
    classified as glial cells, ____________ are also ____________ that line the
    cavities in the brain and spinal cord and help form the choroid plexus.
    ependymal cells; epithelial cells

  37. In the PNS, an
    axon may be enveloped by ____________ without being ____________.
    neurolemmocytes; myelinated

  38. Which glial
    cells participate in the repair of damaged nerves?

  39. Which nervous
    system divisions or components contain no afferent neurons?
    ANS and SNS

  40. Ironically, a
    ____________ neuron typically has more dendrites than a ____________ neuron.
    unipolar; bipolar

  41. A multipolar
    neuron that synapses on a gland cell is functionally classified as
    continuous; saltatory

  42. A nerve impulse
    involves ____________ across a neuron's plasma membrane.
    • changes in voltage
    • movement of ions
    • both a and b

  43. Axon
    regeneration in the CNS is restricted by which of the following factors?
    • oligodendrocytes do not release a nerve growth factor
    • crowded axons in the brain and spinal cord complicate regrowth
    • astrocytes and connective tissue coverings may form obstructive scar tissue
    • all of the above

  44. At a chemical
    synapse, ____________ are found only in the plasma membrane of the ____________
    receptor proteins; postsynaptic

  45. Synapses are
    categorized on the basis of
    point of contact and mode of impulse transmission

  46. Which
    structural classes of neurons are always sensory in function?
    unipolar and bipolar

  47. The
    ____________ is the only functional class of neuron entirely restricted to the
    ____________ nervous system.
    association neuron; central

  48. Which of the
    following are structural, as opposed to functional, divisions of the nervous
    (1) CNS (2) SNS (3) PNS (4) ANS
    1 and 3

  49. With regard to
    control of effectors, ____________ is to involuntary as ____________ is
    to voluntary.
    3 and 5

  50. Touch,
    vibration, and proprioception are examples of
    general somatic senses

  51. Which statement
    is false regarding neural circuits?
    • in parallel-after-discharge circuits, a single input leads
    • to multiple individual outputs

  52. Increased
    dietary intake of vitamin B12 and ____________ during
    pregnancy can dramatically reduce the incidence of neural tube defects such as
    folic acid (folate); anencephaly and spina bifida

  53. The cell body
    of a mature neuron does not contain
    a centriole.

  54. Neurons that
    have only two processes attached to the cell body are called

  55. Which neurons
    are located only within the CNS?

  56. An example of
    an effector is a

  57. The glial cells
    that help produce CSF in the CNS are
    ependymal cells.

  58. Which of the
    following is not a part of the CNS?

  59. Which of these
    cells transfer and process information?

  60. Which type of
    neuronal pool utilizes nerve impulse feedback to repeatedly stimulate the
    reverberating circuit

  61. At an
    electrical synapse, presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes interface through
    gap junctions.

  62. The epineurium
    a thick, dense irregular connective tissue layer enclosing the nerve.