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the nervous system consists of which two subdivisions?
central and peripheral
neuron cell bodies located outside the CNS are called
functional division of the nervous system includes the SNS and ANS?
In the PNS,
components of the afferent division include
are innervated by visceral motor neurons?
cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands
distinct cell types that compose all nervous tissue are
expanded tips of telodendria are called
in a neuron cell body (or sometimes the entire cell body) is called the
categories of neurons include which of the following?
unipolar, bipolar, and multipolar
numerous dendrites and a single axon are structurally classified as
neurons transmit nerve impulses
from the CNS to muscles or glands
glial cells do all of the following except
synthesize neurotransmitters and conduct nerve impulses
The word root
, as in "glial cells," most nearly means
neuroglia of the central nervous system?
ependymal cells and astrocytes
description refers to oligodendrocytes?
large, bulbous cells with slender cytoplasmic extensions
The largest and
most abundant of the CNS glial cells, ____________ help form the blood-brain
Which types of
glial cells are found in the peripheral nervous system?
neurolemmocytes and satellite cells
describes the collection of lipids and proteins that may form a protective
coating around an axon?
affects nerve impulse conduction in which of the following ways?
allows saltatory conduction from one neurofibril node to the next
regeneration in the PNS involves ____________ in a process known as Wallerian
ependymal cells; neogenesis
bundles of parallel axons in the PNS that have three successive connective
tissue wrappings, called the
endoneurium, perineurium, and epineurium
The point at
which two excitable cells contact to exchange information is called a
knob of a neuron may contact another neuron anywhere except
At a chemical
synapse, the presynaptic membrane releases a signaling molecule called a
Which one of
the following is not
a step in the conduction of a nerve impulse across a
- calcium ions entering the synaptic cleft cause the endocytosis of synaptic
The rate of
conduction of a nerve impulse is influenced by the
- The rate of
- conduction of a nerve impulse is influenced by the
accurately characterize neuronal pools?
have numerous types of circuits defined by structural features
All of the
following are types of neuronal circuits except
In the embryo,
the neural plate (which gives rise to most nervous tissue structures) develops
for the gray color of gray matter?
- presence of Nissl bodies
- absence of myelin
- both of the above
neurofilaments extending into dendrites and axons to provide structural support
"terminally differentiated," as applied to mature neurons, means that they
cannot divide mitotically to produce daughter cells
outnumber ____________ by as much as ten to one, ____________ account for only
about half of the total volume of the nervous system.
neurons; glial cells
are different, but ____________ in the CNS and ____________ in the PNS perform
cells behave much like certain leukocytes?
classified as glial cells, ____________ are also ____________ that line the
cavities in the brain and spinal cord and help form the choroid plexus.
ependymal cells; epithelial cells
In the PNS, an
axon may be enveloped by ____________ without being ____________.
cells participate in the repair of damaged nerves?
system divisions or components contain no
ANS and SNS
____________ neuron typically has more dendrites than a ____________ neuron.
neuron that synapses on a gland cell is functionally classified as
A nerve impulse
involves ____________ across a neuron's plasma membrane.
- changes in voltage
- movement of ions
- both a and b
regeneration in the CNS is restricted by which of the following factors?
- oligodendrocytes do not release a nerve growth factor
- crowded axons in the brain and spinal cord complicate regrowth
- astrocytes and connective tissue coverings may form obstructive scar tissue
- all of the above
At a chemical
synapse, ____________ are found only in the plasma membrane of the ____________
receptor proteins; postsynaptic
categorized on the basis of
point of contact and mode of impulse transmission
structural classes of neurons are always sensory in function?
unipolar and bipolar
____________ is the only functional class of neuron entirely restricted to the
____________ nervous system.
association neuron; central
Which of the
following are structural, as opposed to functional, divisions of the nervous
(1) CNS (2) SNS (3) PNS (4) ANS
1 and 3
With regard to
control of effectors, ____________ is to involuntary
as ____________ is
3 and 5
vibration, and proprioception are examples of
general somatic senses
regarding neural circuits?
- in parallel-after-discharge circuits, a single input leads
- to multiple individual outputs
dietary intake of vitamin B12
and ____________ during
pregnancy can dramatically reduce the incidence of neural tube defects such as
folic acid (folate); anencephaly and spina bifida
The cell body
of a mature neuron does not contain
have only two processes attached to the cell body are called
are located only within the CNS?
An example of
an effector is a
The glial cells
that help produce CSF in the CNS are
Which of the
following is not a part of the CNS?
Which of these
cells transfer and process information?
Which type of
neuronal pool utilizes nerve impulse feedback to repeatedly stimulate the
electrical synapse, presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes interface through
a thick, dense irregular connective tissue layer enclosing the nerve.