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The four major
regions of the brain are the
cerebrum, diencephalon, brainstem, and cerebellum
lists the cranial meninges in order from superficial to deep?
dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater
where the two layers of the dura mater separate, the gap between them is called
a dural venous sinus
The largest of
the cranial dural septa is the
tetrahedron-shaped cavity between the pons and cerebellum is the
The word root
, as in "ependymal cells," literally means
an upper garment
fluid performs which of the following functions?
- provides buoyancy for the brain
- cushions neural structures from sudden movements
- delivers nutrients and chemical messengers and removes waste products
- all of the above
produces cerebrospinal fluid in each ventricle?
subarachnoid space, excess cerebrospinal fluid flows into the dural venous
sinuses through the
barrier of the CNS is missing or markedly reduced in which of the following
choroid plexus, hypothalamus, and pineal gland
hemispheres are separated by the
describe the parietal lobe?
contains the functionally important precentral gyrus
describes masses of gray matter deep inside each cerebral hemisphere?
white matter consists of which three groups of axons?
association, commissural, and projection tracts
axons that extend between the cerebral hemispheres are called
region is responsible for the conscious awareness of touch, pressure, pain, and
primary somatosensory cortex
cortical area coordinates learned, skilled motor activities?
does all of the following except
receives and processes sensory input from olfactory receptors in the nose
Which region of
the diencephalon controls the ANS and endocrine system, body temperature,
circadian rhythms, and various emotions and behavioral drives?
What are the
three regions of the brainstem?
mesencephalon, pons, and medulla oblongata
mesencephalon comprises all of the following structures except
turning of the head and eyes in the direction of a sound is controlled by the
____________ of the mesencephalon.
- nuclei associated with five pairs of cranial nerves
- nuclei and tracts that relay sensory information to the thalamus
- several autonomic nuclei that regulate functions vital for life
- all of the above
skeletal muscle movements and maintaining equilibrium are two of several
important functions of the
description of the cerebellum is incorrect
has prominent folds called gyri covering the left and right hemispheres
the limbic system
- conduct and process olfactory sensations
- collectively process and experience emotions
- are essential in storing memories and forming long-term memory
- all of the above
with purely sensory functions include which of the following?
oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens
nerves have autonomic (parasympathetic) as well as somatic motor functions?
III, VII, IX, and X
The word root
, as in "vagus nerve," most nearly means
All of the
following refer to the same region of the mesencephalon except
red nuclei and substantia nigra
is to commissural
as ____________ is to projection
body, claustrum, and corpus striatum are all components of the non-cortical gray
matter of the cerebrum collectively known as the
Until it was
banned, visual subliminal advertising seemed like a tremendous tool for the
motion picture industry: a photograph of a hot dog interspersed occasionally
among the frames of the movie, passing too quickly to be noticed, and yet hot
dog sales skyrocketed. Which cerebral nucleus likely played a part?
striatum comprises all of the following except
organs housed within the cranium are all directly associated with which brain
Because of its
major roles in controlling emotions, drives, and memory, damage to the
____________ could drastically alter an individual's personality.
nuclei relay visual information from the optic tract to the visual cortex and
lateral geniculate nuclei
released by the posterior pituitary are actually produced by the ____________,
which also controls the activities of the anterior pituitary as well as numerous
autonomic functions, emotions, drives, and natural rhythms.
hypothalamic nucleus or region serves as the body's "thermostat"?
Damage to one's
____________ would impair the somatic reflexes involved in eating.
fibers that connect the two parts of the metencephalon are the
middle cerebellar peduncles
____________ is covered with folia (literally, "leaves"); inside, it has a
"tree" of white matter.
Which two parts
of the brain most directly control normal breathing?
pons and medulla oblongata
pairs of cranial nerves
arise mostly from the brainstem, with only one pair from the telencephalon
correctly match a cranial nerve with its primary
XII, general sensory
nerve innervates the muscles of mastication and provides sensory information
from the face, mouth, and anterior scalp?
nerve innervates the muscles of facial expression and several glands, and
conducts gustatory impulses from the anterior part of the tongue?
____________ nerve monitors sensations of balance and equilibrium as well as
nerve assists in monitoring O2
levels in the
nerve plays the largest role in the autonomic control of visceral functions?
Of the primary
brain vesicles, the only one that does not subdivide during embryonic
development is the
Which is more
dangerous, and why: a subdural or an epidural hemorrhage?
epidural, because a damaged artery produces a rapidly growing hematoma
following, damage to Broca's area would most likely cause
disease results from ____________ and is generally ____________.
deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine; idiopathic
nerve has three divisions (ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular)?
trigeminal (CN V)
of the brain that does not initiate somatic motor movements, but rather
coordinates and fine-tunes those movements is the
reflex center is housed within the
Which of the
following is not a function of the hypothalamus?
initiates voluntary skeletal muscle movement
Which of the
following statements is false about the choroid plexus?
It forms the blood-brain barrier.
are descending motor tracts on the anterolateral surface of the mesencephalon.
lobe is located immediately posterior to the central sulcus and superior to the
motor cortex is located in which cerebral structure?
are the isolated, innermost gray matter areas near the base of the cerebrum,
inferior to the lateral ventricles.
contains some autonomic centers involved in regulating respiration?