SLCC ANATOMY CHAPTER 15

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Anonymous
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82873
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SLCC ANATOMY CHAPTER 15
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2011-04-30 20:54:02
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SLCC ANATOMY
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Brain and Cranial Nerves
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  1. The four major
    regions of the brain are the
    cerebrum, diencephalon, brainstem, and cerebellum

  2. Which sequence
    lists the cranial meninges in order from superficial to deep?
    dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater

  3. In regions
    where the two layers of the dura mater separate, the gap between them is called
    a dural venous sinus

  4. The largest of
    the cranial dural septa is the
    falx cerebri

  5. The
    tetrahedron-shaped cavity between the pons and cerebellum is the
    fourth ventricle

  6. The word root
    ependyma, as in "ependymal cells," literally means
    an upper garment

  7. Cerebrospinal
    fluid performs which of the following functions?
    • provides buoyancy for the brain
    • cushions neural structures from sudden movements
    • delivers nutrients and chemical messengers and removes waste products
    • all of the above

  8. Which structure
    produces cerebrospinal fluid in each ventricle?
    choroid plexus

  9. From the
    subarachnoid space, excess cerebrospinal fluid flows into the dural venous
    sinuses through the
    arachnoid villi

  10. The blood-brain
    barrier of the CNS is missing or markedly reduced in which of the following
    locations?
    choroid plexus, hypothalamus, and pineal gland

  11. The cerebral
    hemispheres are separated by the
    longitudinal fissure

  12. Which statement
    does not describe the parietal lobe?
    contains the functionally important precentral gyrus

  13. Which term
    describes masses of gray matter deep inside each cerebral hemisphere?
    cerebral nuclei

  14. The central
    white matter consists of which three groups of axons?
    association, commissural, and projection tracts

  15. Myelinated
    axons that extend between the cerebral hemispheres are called
    commissural tracts

  16. Which cortical
    region is responsible for the conscious awareness of touch, pressure, pain, and
    temperature?
    primary somatosensory cortex

  17. Which cerebral
    cortical area coordinates learned, skilled motor activities?
    prefrontal cortex

  18. The thalamus
    does all of the following except
    receives and processes sensory input from olfactory receptors in the nose

  19. Which region of
    the diencephalon controls the ANS and endocrine system, body temperature,
    circadian rhythms, and various emotions and behavioral drives?
    hypothalamus

  20. What are the
    three regions of the brainstem?
    mesencephalon, pons, and medulla oblongata

  21. The
    mesencephalon comprises all of the following structures except the
    flocculonodular lobes

  22. Reflexive
    turning of the head and eyes in the direction of a sound is controlled by the
    ____________ of the mesencephalon.
    inferior colliculi

  23. The medulla
    oblongata contains
    • nuclei associated with five pairs of cranial nerves
    • nuclei and tracts that relay sensory information to the thalamus
    • several autonomic nuclei that regulate functions vital for life
    • all of the above

  24. Coordinating
    skeletal muscle movements and maintaining equilibrium are two of several
    important functions of the
    cerebellum

  25. Which
    description of the cerebellum is incorrect?
    has prominent folds called gyri covering the left and right hemispheres

  26. Components of
    the limbic system
    • conduct and process olfactory sensations
    • collectively process and experience emotions
    • are essential in storing memories and forming long-term memory
    • all of the above

  27. Cranial nerves
    with purely sensory functions include which of the following?
    oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens

  28. Which cranial
    nerves have autonomic (parasympathetic) as well as somatic motor functions?
    III, VII, IX, and X

  29. The word root
    vagus, as in "vagus nerve," most nearly means
    wandering

  30. All of the
    following refer to the same region of the mesencephalon except the
    red nuclei and substantia nigra

  31. Corpus
    callosum
    is to commissural as ____________ is to projection
    tracts.
    internal capsule

  32. The amygdaloid
    body, claustrum, and corpus striatum are all components of the non-cortical gray
    matter of the cerebrum collectively known as the
    cerebral nuclei

  33. Until it was
    banned, visual subliminal advertising seemed like a tremendous tool for the
    motion picture industry: a photograph of a hot dog interspersed occasionally
    among the frames of the movie, passing too quickly to be noticed, and yet hot
    dog sales skyrocketed. Which cerebral nucleus likely played a part?
    claustrum

  34. The corpus
    striatum comprises all of the following except the
    amygdaloid body

  35. Endocrine
    organs housed within the cranium are all directly associated with which brain
    region?
    diencephalon

  36. Because of its
    major roles in controlling emotions, drives, and memory, damage to the
    ____________ could drastically alter an individual's personality.
    limbic system

  37. Which thalamic
    nuclei relay visual information from the optic tract to the visual cortex and
    mesencephalon?
    lateral geniculate nuclei

  38. Hormones
    released by the posterior pituitary are actually produced by the ____________,
    which also controls the activities of the anterior pituitary as well as numerous
    autonomic functions, emotions, drives, and natural rhythms.
    hypothalamus

  39. Which
    hypothalamic nucleus or region serves as the body's "thermostat"?
    preoptic area

  40. Damage to one's
    ____________ would impair the somatic reflexes involved in eating.
    mammillary bodies

  41. The transverse
    fibers that connect the two parts of the metencephalon are the
    middle cerebellar peduncles

  42. Outside, the
    ____________ is covered with folia (literally, "leaves"); inside, it has a
    "tree" of white matter.
    cerebellum

  43. Which two parts
    of the brain most directly control normal breathing?
    pons and medulla oblongata

  44. The twelve
    pairs of cranial nerves
    arise mostly from the brainstem, with only one pair from the telencephalon

  45. Which pair
    doesnot correctly match a cranial nerve with its primary
    functional category?
    XII, general sensory

  46. Which cranial
    nerve innervates the muscles of mastication and provides sensory information
    from the face, mouth, and anterior scalp?
    trigeminal

  47. Which cranial
    nerve innervates the muscles of facial expression and several glands, and
    conducts gustatory impulses from the anterior part of the tongue?
    facial

  48. The
    ____________ nerve monitors sensations of balance and equilibrium as well as
    hearing.
    vestibulocochlear

  49. Which cranial
    nerve assists in monitoring O2 and CO2 levels in the
    blood?
    IX

  50. Which cranial
    nerve plays the largest role in the autonomic control of visceral functions?
    vagus

  51. Of the primary
    brain vesicles, the only one that does not subdivide during embryonic
    development is the
    mesencephalon

  52. Which is more
    dangerous, and why: a subdural or an epidural hemorrhage?
    epidural, because a damaged artery produces a rapidly growing hematoma

  53. Of the
    following, damage to Broca's area would most likely cause
    nonfluent aphasia

  54. Parkinson
    disease results from ____________ and is generally ____________.
    deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine; idiopathic

  55. Which cranial
    nerve has three divisions (ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular)?
    trigeminal (CN V)

  56. The subdivision
    of the brain that does not initiate somatic motor movements, but rather
    coordinates and fine-tunes those movements is the
    cerebellum.

  57. The visceral
    reflex center is housed within the
    superior colliculus.

  58. Which of the
    following is not a function of the hypothalamus?
    initiates voluntary skeletal muscle movement

  59. Which of the
    following statements is false about the choroid plexus?
    It forms the blood-brain barrier.

  60. The ________
    are descending motor tracts on the anterolateral surface of the mesencephalon.
    cerebral peduncles

  61. Which cerebral
    lobe is located immediately posterior to the central sulcus and superior to the
    lateral sulcus?
    parietal lobe

  62. The primary
    motor cortex is located in which cerebral structure?
    precentral gyrus

  63. The ________
    are the isolated, innermost gray matter areas near the base of the cerebrum,
    inferior to the lateral ventricles.
    cerebral nuclei

  64. Which structure
    contains some autonomic centers involved in regulating respiration?
    pons

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