Pharm Final, I Bartbit's & Benzo's

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HLW
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82877
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Pharm Final, I Bartbit's & Benzo's
Updated:
2011-04-30 21:19:24
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Pharm Final I
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  1. Actions of Barbiturates (3)
    • GABAA Agonists (Open Cl- Channels)
    • Decrease Activation of AMPA
    • Decrease Activity of Voltage Dep Na+ Channels (Inhib High Freq Firing)
  2. What Are Barbiturates used for (4)?
    • Induction
    • Seizures
    • Dec Intracranial and Cerebral Edema
    • ET
  3. Affects of Barbiturates with increasing dosages (5):
    • Sedation
    • Hypnosis
    • Anesthesia
    • Coma
    • Death
  4. What have barbiturates been replaced with?
    Benzodiazapines
  5. Which drugs are the proptype for sedative hypnotics?
    Barbiturates
  6. Which Barbiturates are used for Induction (2)?
    • Thiopental
    • Methohexital
  7. Which Barbiturates are used for short term anesthesia maint (2)?
    • Thiopental
    • Methohexidal
  8. Which Barbiturate is used to treat insomnia?
    Pentobarb
  9. Which Barbiturates are used to Tx seizures?
    • Phenobarbital
    • Thiopental
    • Amobarbital
    • Pentobarbital
    • Secobarbital
  10. Which is a more potent AMPA atagonist, Pentobarb or Phenobarb?
    Pentobarb
  11. Which is more likely to induce profound CNS depression, Pentobarb or Phenobarb?
    Pentobarb
  12. Which Barbiturates are used for preoperative sedation?
    • Pentobarb
    • Secobarb
    • Amobarb
  13. Phenobarb's acts on which receptors?
    • GABAA
    • Glutamate
  14. Activity of Phenobarb on it's receptors:
    • GABA: Increases the activity of GABA by opening the Cl- channels
    • Glutamate: Non-Comp agonist of AMPA
  15. ____ has a high affinity & selectivity
    Benzodiazapams
  16. Why have benzodiazapams replaced barbiturates?
    • Less profound effects on induction
    • Antiepileptic
    • Neuro-Protection
  17. Barbiturate's primarily differ in what property?
    Lipid Solubility
  18. Bezodiazapam lipid solubility =>
    • Enter brain rapidly
    • Redistribution
    • Short Duration of action
  19. How do Benzodiazapines act as antiepileptics?
    Inhibit AMPA receptor mediated exitatory transmission
  20. How do benzodiazapines protect the brainfrom ischemic damage?
    • Neuronal activity suppression
    • Barbituate coma
    • Reduced O2 consumption & perfusion
  21. Clinial uses of benzodiazapines:
    • Sedative
    • Hypnotic
    • Muscle Relaxant
    • Amnestic
    • Anxiolytic
  22. At high dosages, benzodiazapines => (2)
    • Hypnosis
    • Stupor
  23. Acute Barbituate intoxication =>
    Serous deficits on Cardiovascular and Peripheral functions
  24. The affects of what drugs are dependent on dosage, route, and the species treated?
    Barbiturates
  25. Side Fx of Barbiturates (7):
    • Depression of Medullary Center
    • Respiratory Depression-Arrest
    • Cardiovascular
    • GI Tract
    • Reduced O2 consumption of all tissues
    • Decreased basal metaboic rate
    • Reduced response to ACh
  26. Which organs are most affected by barbiturates?
    • Liver (hepatic microsomal enzymes)
    • Kidney (D/T hypotension)
  27. What factors affect the distribution of barbiturates?
    • Lipid Solubility
    • Plasma Protein Binding
    • Emotional & Physiological State
  28. Which barbiturates are highly lipid Soluble (enters brain and tissues rapidly)?
    • Thiopental
    • Methohexital
  29. When administered PO or IV, how are barbiturates metabolised?
    First Pass Metab >> Liver
  30. Which Barbiturate is metabolized (? absorbed) transmucosally?
    Methohexital
  31. Barbiturates induce liver microsomal enzymes, which leads to:
    increased rate of metabolism of many drugs
  32. Barbiturates enhance the metabolism of (8): *
    • Other sedatives/hyonotics
    • Benzodiazapines
    • Phenytoin
    • Digoxin
    • Steroid Hormones
    • Bile Salts
    • Cholesterol
    • Vit A & K
  33. It is important to check liver function before admin of _____
    Barniturates
  34. What drugs should be used with caution in cats? Why?
    Barbiturates -> Respiratory Depression
  35. Which drugs have a low therpeutic index?
    Barbiturates

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