Language is learned best as structures (form) that carry meanings (content) that serve purposes (use)
Hypothesis regarding the system of rules used by the speakers/listeners of a particular language that characterize the regularities or patterns of a language; it changes the meaning of a word semantics.
Study of how language units acquire meaning for the speakers/listeners of a language
Practical aspects of language used as a social tool; study of speaker/listener intentions and relations and all the elements of the contexts in which messages occur.
Frame of reference that compares individual’s performance to performance of a representative sample of their peers. (most useful in screening).
Subgroup of individuals chosen to be representative of the population of interest.
Tendency for observations or values to cluster around some value.
Expresses the variability in a set of scores in original units. A stronger measure of dispersion because it’s based on the degree of dispersion of each value from the mean for that set of values
General term referring to transformed/derived normalized scores used to compare an individual’s performance to that of his/her peers (same population); based on mean and standard deviation of the standardized sample.
Derived score expressed as the CA or grade placement of the group for whom an obtained score was typical; based only on the means obtained by some group included in the standardized sample (the greater the discrepancy between CA and age equivalent score, the greater the confidence that a disorder exists)
Extent to which an instrument measures what it claims to measure (Construct/Content/Face/Criterion)
Extent to which results obtained by an instrument with a given subject are similar or consistent (Intra/Inter-examiner/Equivalence of Forms)
Criterion of Productivity/Criterion of Mastery/General “rules of thumb” are used in _________ _________.
Naturalistic, spontaneous, conversational sample of recorded speech analyzed for form, meaning, and use.
Expressive language sample
Child’s utterances are contrasted against “expanded adult model” to identify errors which will become potential target goals for treatment
Pretreatment measure of behavior…prevalent rate or frequency at which a specific language behavior occurs prior to intervention (client’s level of mastery with a given skill before training begins). Establishes priorities for goal selection (Spontaneous/Imitative/Non-imitative modeled elicitations)
Baseline or Baserate
Goal planning steps (can use expressive language sample or baserate data):
Identify skill, level (word, phrase, sentence, conversation, or modality (expressive or receptive) in question
Identify stimuli, prompts, for evoking behavior
Prepare response record—skill, levels, modality
Present trials—stimuli and prompts-to evoke responses
Calculate % correct to analyze response accuracy
Goals based on what will be more functional or more valuable to individual clients to serve their communication needs
Remedial (“functional”) logic
In the absence of clear empirical and/or functional considerations, consider goals that are derived from normal language development sequences.
Developmental approach or logic
“Decision-maker” tool of reference points that help clinician decide when to proceed, back up, modify a program, or terminate a program depending upon the target response rate. Terminal criterion determines when a response has been “learned” according to the program’s criterion. Behavioral structure that is used correctly in 90% of accuracy of obligatory contexts.
Criterion of mastery
Orderly sequence of training steps that are designed to cause the client to produce a selected language behavior. Clinician provides maximum stimulus report in the early stages and gradually withdraws the support until the client is able to make the response more spontaneously
Language skill that should be specified in such a way that its occurrence or non-occurrence can be easily identified and measured.
Primary context (object, picture, event) representing the target behavior
Primary verbal stimuli that “sets the stage” presented to evoke a response to the stimulus. Essentially “asking” the client to respond to the stimulus while presenting an object. Prompts may be adjusted to include additional cues that are specific to the target response
Secondary stimuli (auditory, visual, and/or tactile-kinesthetic) provided in addition to the primary stimulus to promote/facilitate/support correct response by the client
Consequent events to correct and incorrect responses. Any event that follows a response and increases frequency or probability it will occur again under similar circumstances. How the client will be given feedback about the accuracy of the response they make. These should be meaningful to the client; need to be able to see that responding does predictable lead to some desirable result.
Creating a behavior that is infrequent or nonexistent through shaping procedures. The goal of this phase is to make the newly trained response more “automatic” to the client. Prompts and cues should gradually be faded while maintaining a high level of success.
Most direct, yet most natural procedure in which the clinician provides an auditory stimulus (a model) to be imitated by the client. Typically used in the early phases of training a response that is not in the client’s repertoire or exists at a very low level of mastery
Response by the client that is a relatively immediate reproduction of an auditory stimulus (the model) provided by the clinician.
Procedure of repetition of the client’s responses which include an additional grammatical structure—the one that will be targeted next; used by clinician to supplement either imitative or spontaneous responses by the client. Typically follows a correct response by client and provides an opportunity for the client to hear the next grammatical structure they will be adding to their response in the next training step.
Procedure employed by clinician that involves commenting on the topic of a child’s utterance and includes additional related semantic information.
Ability of clinician to adjust various management factors to “fine tune” the learning experience of the client. The goal is to maintain level of performance from client that provides enough success and motivation while also providing a task that challenges the client to learn progressively toward higher more natural activities.
Transferring/maintaining the behavior; the goal is to cause the behavior to occur in varying responses, activities and settings. Less predictable, more spontaneous and natural.