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2011-04-30 23:49:46

Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves
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  1. Which body
    regions are innervated by the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord?
    lower limbs

  2. What is the
    collective name for all of the axons that project inferiorly from the spinal
    cauda equina

  3. Within the
    cauda equina is a thin strand of pia mater called the
    filum terminale

  4. Cell bodies of
    sensory neurons are housed in each
    posterior root ganglion

  5. Which structure
    contains motor axons only?
    anterior root

  6. Within each
    intervertebral foramen, an anterior root and its corresponding posterior root
    unite to form a
    spinal nerve

  7. The spinal cord
    meninges, in order from the outermost to the innermost, are the
    • The spinal cord
    • meninges, in order from the outermost to the innermost, are the

  8. The tough,
    protective ____________ extends between adjacent vertebrae to fuse with the
    connective tissue surrounding the spinal nerves.
    dura mater

  9. Between the
    dura mater and the inner walls of the vertebrae is the

  10. The substance
    that fills the subarachnoid space is
    cerebrospinal fluid

  11. What are the
    paired, triangular extensions of the pia mater that help anchor the spinal cord
    laterally to the dura mater?
    denticulate ligaments

  12. The outer
    region of the spinal cord, composed primarily of myelinated axons, is called the
    white matter

  13. The word root
    commissura most nearly means
    a seam

  14. The lateral
    horns found in the T1-L2 regions of the spinal cord contain
    cell bodies of autonomic motor neurons

  15. Which spinal
    cord components contain cell bodies of interneurons and axons of sensory
    posterior horns

  16. White matter of
    the spinal cord is partitioned into ____________, each containing both ascending
    and descending ____________.
    funiculi; tracts

  17. The anterior
    funiculi are interconnected by the
    white commissure

  18. The spinal
    nerves inferior to ____________ exit below the vertebra of the same

  19. Which term
    describes the specific region of skin monitored by a single spinal nerve?

  20. The anterior
    rami of spinal nerves T1-T11
    are called intercostal nerves

  21. The four
    principal nerve plexuses are the
    cervical, brachial, lumbar, and sacral

  22. Branches of
    which plexuses innervate anterior neck muscles, the skin of the neck, and parts
    of the head and shoulders?

  23. Nerves from the
    brachial plexuses innervate the
    pectoral girdles and upper limbs

  24. All of the
    following branch from the lumbar plexus except the
    sciatic nerve

  25. Which nerve
    innervates the posterior thigh and leg muscles, plantar foot muscles, and skin
    of the sole of the foot?

  26. Which adjective
    best describes reflex responses?

  27. The first step
    involved in a typical neural reflex is
    activation of a receptor by a stimulus

  28. Which of the
    following is not generally involved in a reflex?
    inhibition of an effector by a stimulus from a motor neuron

  29. If its receptor
    and effector are on the same side of the body, a reflex arc is termed
    ____________; if on opposite sides, it is ____________
    ipsilateral; contralateral

  30. A familiar type
    of monosynaptic reflex that monitors and regulates the length of skeletal muscle
    is the
    stretch reflex

  31. Where does the
    adult spinal cord end?
    • immediately above the filum terminale
    • at the tip of the conus medullaris
    • usually at the level of vertebra L1
    • all of the above

  32. Although
    extending from the end of the spinal cord, the ____________ contains no neural
    fibers, only fibrous connective tissue.
    filum terminale

  33. The posterior
    and anterior roots of the ____________ must elongate because the spinal cord
    stops growing before the vertebral column does.
    cauda equina

  34. Fibers of the
    ____________ intertwine on one side with those of another meninx, and on the
    other, with glial cells.
    pia mater

  35. Which spinal
    meningeal layer is sandwiched between a potential space and a very significant
    space occupied by connective tissue fibers and cerebrospinal fluid?

  36. Helping to
    prevent side-to-side and inferior movement of the spinal cord are paired
    ____________ that connect the pia mater to the dura mater.
    denticulate ligaments

  37. The sensory
    nuclei of the spinal cord contain which type of neuron cell bodies?

  38. In the spinal
    cord, a ____________ is to a tract as a horn is to a

  39. Which
    structures would not be found in the anterior horns of the spinal cord?
    cell bodies of autonomic motor neurons

  40. The
    roots of the brachial plexus are actually
    the anterior rami of spinal nerves

  41. Which branches
    of spinal nerves innervate the limbs and the anterolateral portions of the
    anterior rami

  42. Of the
    following, which nerve ranges farthest from its roots in the cervical plexus and
    is most vital to your health?

  43. In a freak
    golfing accident, Jim damaged a nerve in his arm and now has trouble extending
    his forearm, wrist, and fingers. Which nerve did he damage?

  44. "Crutch palsy"
    and "drunkard's paralysis" both refer to conditions resulting from injury to the
    ____________ of the brachial plexus.
    posterior cord

  45. Which nerve is
    most likely to be injured by fractures or dislocations of the elbow (or by an
    extra hard hit to the "funny bone")?

  46. Damage to which
    nerve would likely cause the most severe dysfunction in both the urinary and
    reproductive systems?

  47. Bob had polio
    as a child and now drags his right leg slightly when he walks because of
    weakness in flexing his hip and extending his knee. In addition, his leg swings
    outward slightly with each step, and he has difficulty in crossing his right leg
    over his left. These all result from damage to which nerve?

  48. Which branches
    of the lumbar plexus innervate muscles of the anterior abdominal wall?
    iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves

  49. Loss of
    sensation in a single dermatome on one side of the body could indicate damage to
    a spinal nerve or to
    a posterior root ganglion

  50. Which terminal
    branch of the brachial plexus innervates the skin just distolateral to the
    acromion, as well as an abductor and a lateral rotator of the arm?
    axillary nerve

  51. If a reflex arc
    involves a single interneuron, it is classified as

  52. Clinically, a
    ____________ reflex accompanied by ____________ strongly indicates brain or
    spinal cord injury.
    hyperactive; clonus

  53. In males, what
    reflex protects a testis from damage by elevating it when the medial side of the
    thigh is briskly stroked?

  54. Normal for
    infants but indicative of CNS damage in adults, the ____________ is essentially
    a reversal of the ____________ reflex.
    Babinski sign; plantar

  55. The tapered
    inferior end of the spinal cord is called the
    conus medullaris.

  56. The anterior
    root of a spinal nerve contains
    axons of motor neurons only.

  57. Identify the
    meningeal layer immediately deep to the subdural space.

  58. Axons cross
    from one side of the spinal cord to the other through a gray matter region
    called the
    gray commissure.

  59. The radial
    nerve originates from the ________ plexus.

  60. Which structure
    provides motor innervation to the deep back muscles and receives sensory
    information from the skin of the back?
    posterior ramus

  61. Lower limbs are
    supplied by neurons from the______ of the spinal cord.
    lumbar enlargement

  62. The
    subarachnoid space contains ________, and the epidural space contains ________.
    CSF; fat, connective tissue, and blood vessels

  63. The white
    matter of the spinal cord is composed primarily of
    myelinated axons.

  64. Which statement
    is true about intercostal nerves?
    They originate from the thoracic region of the spinal cord.