ch 20 final

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ch 20 final
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2011-05-01 00:19:39
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  1. Paul Ehrlich?
    Magic bullet, coined the term chemotherapeutic
  2. Alexander Flemming?
    Antibiosis --> antibiotic; discovered pencillin
  3. Gerhard Domagk?
    1st sulfer drug
  4. Chemotherapeutic Drugs?
    any drugs used in treatment of porphylaxis of disease.
  5. What is prophylaxis?
    preventing risk of infection.
  6. Antimircobials?
    All antimircobal drugs regardless of origin
  7. Antibiotic?
    microbe made substances again other microbes
  8. Semisynthetic drugs?
    Lab modified drugs after being ioslatd from natural sources
  9. Synthetic drugs?
    completely made in the lab
  10. What are narrow spectrum drugs?
    Natural penicillin
  11. Broad spectrum drugs?
    Effect against gram + and gram - ; may be against some fungi and protozoan.
  12. What is an ideal antimircobial drug?
    Selectively toxic, mircobicidal rather than microbistatic, not metabolized too quickley, doesnt lead to dev. of resistance and easily souble.
  13. Antibacterial drugs?
    • Affect the bacterial cell wall
    • ex. penicillin, bacitracin and vancomycin
  14. what is a antibacterial drug that disrupts the cell membrane function?
    Polymixin B- causes leakgae of cell contents
  15. What do the drugs that block Protein synthesis do?
    • Target the ribosmal messenger RNA complex.
    • Most effective against gram - bacteria
  16. Tetracylcines?
    • Block proetin synth.
    • bacteristatic
    • prevents the attachment of tRNA
    • broad spect.
    • toxicity- GIT problems, staining of teeth and photo senstive.
  17. Chloramphenicol?
    • Bactristatic
    • prevents peptide bond formation
    • broad spect
    • highly toxic- irrevisable bone marrow damage.
  18. Erythromycin?
    • A marcolide
    • narrow spect
    • bacteristatic
    • attaches to 50S ribosome (prevent movement of ribosome on mRNA)
  19. Fluoroquinolones?
    • Bactericidal
    • broad spect
    • inhibit DNA synthesis
    • ex. norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin
  20. Rifampin?
    • Inhibits RNA synth
    • Narrow spect
    • effective against tuberculosis
  21. Drugs that block metabolic pathways?
    • They are bacteriostatic
    • Sulfonamides (sulfa drugs)
    • block syth of folic acid in bacteria
    • most are narrow spect
  22. Amphotericin B and Nystatin?
    • Antifungal drug
    • An Antiboiotic
    • binds sterol in PM cause leakage of contents
    • toxic to human cells
    • used on surface and systemic infections
  23. Griseofulvin?
    • interferes w/ mitosis
    • fungistatic
    • used agaisnt ringworm and athletes foot
  24. Antifungal : Synthetics

    Azoles?
    • Broad spect
    • fungicidal
    • ex clotrimazole and miconazole
  25. flucytoncine?
    • fungicidal
    • analog of cytocine
    • inhibits RNA syth
    • used in combination w/ other antifungals
  26. Antiprotazoan drugs ; Antimalaria

    Natural?
    • 1) Quinine from cinchona tree
    • 2) Doxycycline from prophylaxis
  27. Antiprotazoan; antimalaria
    Synthetics?
    • Chloroquine- inhibits DNA syth
    • Mefloquine- semisythetic; used to treat chloroquine resistant form
    • Malarone- for prophylaxis
  28. Challenges to treatment w/ Antihelmintic drugs?
    • Size and similarity to human physiology
    • Helminthes include: tapeworm, fluke and roundworms
  29. Membendazole and thiabendazole?
    • effective against round worms
    • interfere w/ glucose metabolism in the intestines
  30. Niclosamide?
    • destorys scolex and attatched to proglottids
    • effective against tapeworms
    • may cause serve ab cramps
  31. Praziquantel?
    • Used for tapeworm and fluke infections
    • disrupt plamsa membrane
  32. What is a major problem with antiviral drugs?
    Selective toxicity
  33. Antiviral drugs; Non-nucloside agents

    Amantadine & Rimantidine?
    • Against type influeneza A virus
    • block the H spikes
  34. Relenza And Tamiflu?
    • effective against both influenza a and b
    • block the N spikes
  35. What are the nucleoside angalogs?
    • Purine (a or g)
    • Pyrimdines (t, c and u)
    • Block DNA and RNA syth
  36. Purine analogs?
    • Antiherpes drugs- used orally or locally
    • blocks DNA syth
  37. Pyrimdine angalogs?
    • Anti HIV
    • Dideoxyinosine
    • Dideoxycytidine
    • ^^ prevent syth of DNA from RNA
    • HIV is retro virus
  38. Enzyme inhibitors?
    • Anti HIV
    • viral protease inhibitors: indinavir, saquinavir, nelfinavir, and crixivan
  39. What is drug resistance?
    mircobes tolerate drug amounts that usually inhibit them
  40. How does resistance occur?
    intermicrobial gene transfer in form or plasmids called resistance (r) factors or through mutations
  41. What are the mechanisms of drug resistance?
    • Activation of enzymes
    • alteration of binding sites for drugs
    • an affected metabolic pathway is shut down or alternated pathway is used
  42. How to lower drug resistance?
    • Use drugs only when necessary
    • follow instructions for intake
    • use combination therapy - for synergistic effect and to decrease toxicity
  43. New drugs?
    target mostly resistance microbes
  44. What are the sources of new drugs?
    plants, animals and sythetic cmpds such as: Synth DNA called triplex agent and antisense agent- those neutrilize genes and mRNAs that code for mircobial pathogenic proteins
  45. Lantibiotics?
    • short peptides produced by bacteria against other bacteria
    • used in food preservation
    • have potential in chemotherapy
  46. Probiotics and prebiotics?
    Replace lost mircobes and add to those already there

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