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Perfect ratio for surface are and volume
Cell extracts energe and creates an external product from the chemical reaction
Rate of division
When a cell decides to make a copy of itself, how fast does it occur?
Rate of division in human cells.
25 x 1012
Growth Curve Equation
Nf = Ni x 2n
n in growth curve
hours/ division rate
Growth curve with very little/ no lag
- Most Virulent
- Thermodynamically working at maximum speed
Growth curve with long/ slow lag
Process for virus
- Protein finds a recpetor
- Virus is received or denited
- Virus is copied by cell upon entrance
- Exits out to envirnment
Can exist outside a cell and influences the process.
Exists in cell and influences the product and cell.
Subclinical stage of growth rate
- Four criteria to establish causual relationship between microbe and disease
- 1) isolate organism from person
- 2) identify the isolated organism
- 3) test on a healthy animale
- 4) repeat to determine if organism is indeed a pathogen
Fundamental pieces of cell
- nucleic acid
- If the receptor on a potential host is a proteind then it invites the virus protein in.
- Shapes looking for each other
Treatment for Viruses
attempt to hide the receptor so the virus can't find its 'match'
Enzymes in virus
- more effective enzymes result in rapid cell copying
- 1) Antogens- place on slide and wait for chemical reactions
- 2) antibodies
- 4 billion years ago
- No nucleus
- Cytoplast is work central
- Very durable cell wall
- Inorganic Chemistry
- 2 Billion years ago
- Organic Chemistry
- specialized subunit within a eucaryotic cell with a specific function
- usually separately enclosed within its own lipid bilayer
Current O2 levels in atmosphere
- metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.
- The free energy released in this process forms the high-energy compounds ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
- Most primative cell
- No nucleus
- not sophisticated
- glucose in ---> lactate out
Potential free energy in glucose
Freed energy from glycolisis
To kill cells in large numbers the the target is....
Enzymes in metabolic state
Invagination in membrane
- increases surface area and allows the cells to work easier
- Cannot have more volume than SA to move goods in and out
extension from cell
Lipids and Gram Stain
Lipids = Gram Negative
Blood Agar Plates
7% sheep RBC
Safarin (counter stain)
Which of the followin will lose color in Gram Stain?
Gram Negative in Alcohol
To stain for TB?
Acid Fast Stain
- Start of # of cells
- germs get going
- Number of cells
- Symptoms present
- Cells looking at DNA to determine next steps...
Microbiology studies/ encompasses
Technology that allows the deliberate altering if DNA
functions in attachment to other cells as receptors
Delineates two different groups of bacteria
Looks like an open faced sandwich
3 layer sandwich
- key intersection in several metabolic pathways.
- output of the anaerobic metabolism of glucose known as glycolysis