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2011-05-01 01:53:58

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  1. How frequently does the average user replace their cell?
    ~1.5 years
  2. How many cell phones does the US replace every year and how many tons of waste does that equate to?
    million cells/months = 65,000 tons of waste
  3. What does CAA give in the Env Law Roadmap?
    o not put anything up the stack
  4. What does CWA give in the Env Law Roadmap?
    do not put anything in the water
  5. What does RCRA give in the Env Law Roadmap?
    o not put it anywhere else
  6. What does CERCLA give in the Env Law Roadmap?
    if you put it in the ground in the past, dig it up now
  7. What does EPCRA give in the Env Law Roadmap?
    if you have it you must tell us about it
  8. What does PPA give in the Env Law Roadmap?
    if it is such bad news, do not make it in the first place
  9. What does OSHA give in the Env Law Roadmap?
    tell us how you are going to use it
  10. What will GOTCHA do to the env law roadmap?
    combine all the env laws into one
  11. What is NAMBI?
    not against my business or industry
  12. What is BANANA?
    build absolutely nothing anywhere near anything
  13. How many coal plants in US?
  14. How much ash does coal contain?
  15. How many tons of coal does a coal plant use?
    ~4000 tons coal/day
  16. How many tons of coal does a coal plant create?
    ~400 tons coal ash/day
  17. In 2008, how much coal ash does a person create a day?
    ~2.5 lbs/person/day
  18. How much of coal ash is beneficial use?
  19. How much of coal ash is in mine fills?
  20. How much of coal ash is in landfills?
  21. How much of coal ash is in surface impoundments?
  22. What are the four types of surface impoundments?
    • Cross valley
    • Sidehill
    • Diked
    • Incised
  23. How many coal ash surface impoundments are there?
  24. Approximately how many have a high or significant hazard potential rating?
  25. How many surface impoundments are over their life expectancy of greater than 40 years?
  26. What was the TVA Kingston Dike Failure?
    • On Dec 22, 2008 coal ash dike failed
    • Resulted in ash laden water covering 300 acres
    • 22 evacuated
    • 42 properties
  27. How many landfills lack liners?
  28. How many landfills lack groundwater monitoring?
  29. How many surface impoundments lack liners?
    62% lack liners
  30. How many surface impoundments lack groundwater monitoring?
    58% lack groundwater monitoring
  31. What did the bevill determination in 200 determine how coal ash should be regulated?
    coal ash should be regulated as a solid waste under subtitle D (not as subtitle C hazardous waste
  32. What two options did the EPA propose in May 2010?
    • 1. Declare as RCRA subtitle C (except beneficial uses)
    • 2. Continue as RCRA subtitle D
  33. What does a pre-clinical study require in the FDA phased drug development?
    Chemical and animal toxicology studies
  34. What does a phase one require in the FDA phased drug development?
    • - initial human studies assess toxicity, pK, initial efficacy
    • - examine special populations (renally impaired)
    • - 20 – 80 patients per study
    • - $25,000 - $40,000/patient
  35. What does a phase two require in the FDA phased drug development?
    • - small scale efficacy/safety studies
    • - dose/regimen selection/optimization
    • - 30 – 200 patients per study
  36. What does a phase three require in the FDA phased drug development?
    • - rigorous controlled efficacy/safety studies
    • - 100-10,000 patients per study
    • - $10,000/patient
  37. What does a phase four require in the FDA phased drug development?
    • - post-approval studies of new uses or populations
    • - similar in scope to Phase 3 trials
  38. What is the FDA definition of a drug?
    Any substance used to diagnore, cure, mitigate, treat or prevent disease
  39. What is effectiveness in the drug development process?
    • - req for “substantial evidence” from “adequate and well controlled trials” since 1962
    • - trials of adequate size and design to determine a difference should such a difference exist
    • - uncontrolled trials are usually not acceptable
    • - testing a hypothesis in a clinical trial, such as “drug X is superior to drug Y by Z%”
  40. How is safety defined in the drug development process?
    • That no drug is completely safe
    • Implies risk of adverse effects is outweighed by benefits
    • Takes into account seriousness of disease and available alt therapies
  41. What does a drug need to obtain fast track designation?
    • -products for serious/life threatening diseases
    • -products to meet potentially unmet medical needs
  42. What did IOM say about evaluating the Drug safety system?
    • -recommend increased authority to FDA for postmarket monitoring/risk assessment
    • - proposes symbol on label for new drugs
    • - recommends safety related performance goals
    • -recommends making study results public
    • -increased funding
    • -recommending 6 yr term for FDA commsiioner
    • -Establish and safety communication cmt
    • -involve office of surveillance and epi to review team
    • -reduce financial conflicts of interest
  43. What is the FTC-FDA Liaison Agreement?
    • For foods, drugs, cosmetics, & medical devices
    • FTC=Advertising
    • FDA=Labeling
  44. How does the FDCA define devices?
    • -intended to diagnose, cure, mitigate, treat, or prevent a disease or condition
    • OR
    • -affects the function or structure of the body
    • AND
    • -does not achieve intended use through chemical action in/on body; and is not metabolized to achieve purpose
  45. What are some examples of device types?
    • -catheters
    • -would care products
    • -dental
    • -implanted device
  46. What are Class one devices under FDCA?
    • -general controls
    • -exempt from pre-marekt submission
  47. What are class two devices under FDCA?
    • -performance standards
    • -pre-market notifications (501K)
  48. What are Class three devices under FDCA?
    • -clinical data needed
    • -pre-market application (PMA)
  49. How many FDA Advisory committees have at least one member with COI?
  50. How many FDA Advisory Committees have more than have with COI?
  51. What are the 2011 CDC estimates of food bourne illness?
    48 million
  52. What are the 2011 CDC estimates of food bourne deaths?
  53. How many oubtreaks for USDA regulated products between 1990 - 2004?
  54. How many outbreaks for FDA regulated products btw 1990-2004?
  55. How many E-Coli illnesses a year?
    70,000 and 1 of 15
  56. Which of the food bourne illnesses is increasing?
  57. How many foodbourne deaths each year are from known pathogens?
    9.4 million from 31 specified pathogens
  58. How many food deaths are from unknown pathogens?
    38.4 million from unspecified agents
  59. What causes the most annual number of food bourne illness a year from foodbourne illness?
    Norovirus 5.46 million
  60. What foodbourne causes the most hospitalizations?
    Salmonella causes the most hospitalizations 19,336
  61. What foodbourne causes the most deaths?
    Salmonella cuases the most deaths
  62. What do salmonella, campylobacter, e-coli, listeria cause?
  63. What do staphylococcus and clostridium botulinum cause>
  64. What are the most common sources of foodbourne disease in CDC Food Net?
    salmonella and campylobacter
  65. What is HACCP?
    systematic approach to food safety through prevention rather than inspection of the final product
  66. Food safety advice?
    • Clean
    • Separate
    • Cook
    • Chill
  67. How much does salt water cover the earth?
    ~70% of earth’s surface
  68. how much of the earth’s water is salt water?
  69. How much of water is brackish?
  70. How much of water is fresh water?
  71. How much of freshwater is frozen?
    2/3 of freshwater frozen in polar ice sheets
  72. How much of water is readily accessible for human use?
    0.3% or 125,000 cubic km of H20
  73. What are sources of freshwater?
    ground water, precipitation, run off, surface
  74. How much of ground water is a water source for US?
    50% of population
  75. What do cisterns do?
    capture and use rain water
  76. how much land has NYC department of enviro protection set aside since 1997 to protect source water?
    70,000 acres
  77. how much water is consumed each day per person?
    50 gallons pdpp
  78. What is the most consumed source of water?
    toilets 15-25 gallons
  79. how much water is used for cooking and drinking per person?
    2 quarts
  80. What is the the source of amoebiasis in waterbourne disease?
    sewage, untreated drinking water
  81. What is the source of cryptospodiosis in waterbourne disease?
    animal manure, seasonal runoff, sewage
  82. What waterbourne diseases are from sewage?
    Cyclosporidiosis, cryptosporidiosis, amoebiasis
  83. what isn’t sewage in waterbourn illness?
    giardiasis and legionellosis
  84. how did Bangladesh plummet the incidence of waterborne disease?
    digging shallow tube wells
  85. as a result of digging shallow tube wells, even though waterbourne disease plummeted, what increased?
    arsenic 1/3 have As levels above suggested 10ppb and some are above 1000 ppb
  86. What is ARUBA
    uses coal ash to remove arsenic from drinking water
  87. What doesn’t the safe drinking water act regulate?
    private well and bottle water (FDA)
  88. What is the national primary drinking water regulation (NPDWR)?
    maximum contaminant levels and treatment techniques
  89. What is the National Secondary Drinking Water Regulation (NSDWR)?
    non-enforceable guideline – cosmetic effects (skin or tooth) and aesthetic effects (such as taste, odor, color)
  90. What is the Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG)?
    • - no adverse effect expected
    • - drinking water consumption compared to RfD
    • - MCLG zero for carcinogens
    • - Does not consider ability to measure or treatment technology
  91. What is Maximum Contaminant level (MCL)
    • based on technical feasibility and cost
    • set as close to MCLG as possible
  92. If there is no reliable method to measure contaminant at low enough level what does EPA use instead of MCL?
    Treatment Technique (TT) (lead and copper rules)
  93. How often must the EPA review contaminants?
    Must review at least 5 contaminants every 5 years
  94. What must EPA show in order to regulate a contaminate?
    • -affects human health
    • -known or substantially likely to occur in public H20 system at freq/level of concern
    • -regulation of contaminant presents opportunity for health risk reduction
  95. What are some concerns about disinfection by-products (DBPs)
    • trihalomethanes
    • bromate
    • haloacetic acids
  96. Pros and cons of chlorine as disinfectants
    • cheap, very effective
    • produces THMs and other DBPs
    • provides residual
  97. Pros and cons of ozone as disinfectants
    • expensive, generated on site, very reactive
    • effective
    • produces bromate and other DBPs
    • no residual
  98. Pros and cons of chlorine dioxide as disinfectants
    • generated on site, explosive, costly
    • effective disinfectant, kills cryptospodium
    • generates DBPs
    • no residual
  99. Pros and cons of chloramines as disinfectants
    • usually used with another disinfectant – often to provide residual
    • generates DBPs can change water properties -
  100. When was chlorination introduced?
  101. how many deaths globally from diarrheal disease through water?
    1.7 million
  102. how much did clean water technologies reduce mortality between 1900-1936
    half of total mortality in citiies
  103. how much did clean water reduce infant mortality in cities 00-36?
  104. how many bottles of water sold year in us and in world?
    50 billion in US ~200 billion ww
  105. how many miles of pipe in the DC?
  106. how many ppl have no access to decent sanitation
    2.6 billion ppl 2/3 in asia and subsarahan Africa
  107. how many deaths could be prevented annually with good santiation?
    2.4 million
  108. how many US households have septic tanks?
  109. How much sludge does the US generate?
    8 million tons a year
  110. What is sludge used for?
    ~60% used for fertilizer/soil amendments
  111. What is point source pollution?
    industrial sources and wastewater treatment facilities
  112. Who administers the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and under authority?
    EPA granted by CWA
  113. What do pristine rivers have BOD?
  114. what is the BOD of moderate polluted rivers?
    2-8 mg/l
  115. what is the BOD of treated sewage?
    20 mg/l or less
  116. What is the BOD of raw sewage?
    800 mg/l
  117. What is anticipation in industrial hygiene?
    anticipate the hazards
  118. what is recognition in industrial hygiene?
    observe and recognize various health hazards
  119. what is evaluation in industrial hygiene?
    • -exposure assessment
    • -compare exposure to risk base
  120. when was the OSH Act passed?
  121. what was OSH Act predecessor?
    American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)
  122. How did Benzene decision shape OSHA risk legislation
    must find significant health risk and that a new lower standard is “reasonably” necessary
  123. what is significant in benzene decision?
    1 in a 1000 risk reasonably signficiant
  124. how much does OSHA receive funding per worker?
  125. how much funding does EPA receive?
    $7.1 billion or $23 per resident
  126. What is the PEL TLV STEL ODOR and IDLH for acetic acid?
    • OSHA PEL: 10
    • ACGHI TLV: 10
    • ACGHI STEL: 15
    • Odor Tr: 2
    • NIOSH IDLH: 1000
  127. What is the hierarchy of hazard controls?
    • Eliminatin
    • Sustitution
    • Engineering
    • Administrative
    • Personal Protective Equipment
  128. how many decibels does an jet engine 100 feet have?
  129. how many decibels does a chainsaw have?
  130. what was the rate of fatal work injuries per 100,000 workers in 2006?
  131. What industry has the highest rate of fatalities?
  132. what industry has the highest death counts?
  133. what is the most common manner of workplace fatalities?
    transportation (40%)
  134. what body part has the most injuries in workplace injuries?
    back 21.2%