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What are the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system?
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
What is the sympathetic nervous system?
A part of the nervous system that serves to accelerate the heart rate, constrict blood vessels, and raise blood pressure. Fight or flight response
What is the parasympathetic nervous system?
A part of nervous system that serves to slow the heart rate, increase the intestinal and gland activity, and relax the sphincter muscles. Rest and digest response
What does the endocrine system comprise of?
- Endocrine Hormones: chemical messengers that are secreted into the circulatory system from a variety of glands and organs
- Endocrine Glands: Secrete hormones to maintain homeostasis
What are some endocrine system characteristics?
- *Hormones reach nearly every cell as blood-borne (no hard wiring)
- *Each hormone is specific - acting only on certain cells - using specific target cell receptors
- *Hormones exhibit slower control than nerves
- *Endocrine and nervous systems frequently interact
What are the two types of hormones in the body?
- Steroid: synthesized from cholestrol & not water soluable
- Nonsteroid: Amino acids, peptides and proteins & are usually water soluable
What are some characteristics of steroid hormones?
- *they are lipid soluble - they can diffuse through a cell membrane
- *Enter target cells
- *Activate specific genes (DNA) to produce specific proteins
- *Slower acting - minutes to hours
- *They are transported to cells by proteins in blood then difuse into the cell membrane
What are some characteristics of nonsteroid hormones?
- *Water soluble
- *Bind to specific receptors on target cell membranes
- *Activate existing enzymes inside the cell to get a chemical reaction
- *Fast acting - seconds to minutes
- *** They dont enter the cells, they stay on the outside on the receptor
What is the pituitary gland?
- *pea sized gland connected to the hypothalamus
- *Has two lobes, anterior lobe (glandular tissue) and posterior lobe (neural tissue)
What hormones are released from the posterior pituitary gland?
- They are nonsteroidal.
- *Antidiuretic hormone (ADH): acts on the kidneys to regulate water balance
- *Oxytocin: acts on mammary glands and uterine smooth muscle; regulates lactation and labour contractions.
Both of these hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus
What hormones are produced in the anterior pituitary
- They are nonsteroidal.
- *ACTH: stimulates the adrenal cortex; hormonal stimuli
- *TSH: acts on thyroid gland; hormonal stimuli
- *FSH, LH and prolactin: reproductive cycles and lacation, many functions
- *Growth hormone: acts on many tissues, growth
What are cells of the pancreas called?
Endocrine cells of the pancreas: islets of Langerhans
Which hormones are released by the pancreas?
- They are nonsteroidal.
- *Insulin: released by beta cells to decrease blood glucose levels
- *Glucagon: released by alpha cells to increase blood glucose
- *Somatostatin: released by delta cells to inhibit insulin and glucagon and regulate other hormones
What does insulin do?
Promotes glucose entry into certain cells and promotes glucose storage
What does glucagon do?
Promotes breakdown of glycogen to glucose and promotes glucose production from amino acids and fats
What components are there to the adrenal glands?
- *adrenal cortex
- *adrenal medulla
Which hormones does the adrenal cortex release?
- Steroidal hormones.
- *Glucocorticoids(cortisol): targets many cells; metabolic functions, stress and depressed immunity
- *Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone): targets many cells, fluid and electrolyte homeostasis - the main target area is the kidneys
which hormones are released from the adrenal medulla?
- Nonsteroidal hormones.
- *epinephrine and norepinephrine (adrenline and noradrenline): enhances function of sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight)
Which hormones does the thyroid release?
- They are nonsteroidal hormones that act like steroidal hormones
- *Thyroxine (t4) and triiodothyronine (T3): acts on many target cells, regulate energy production and affect metabolic rate
- *Calcitonin: acts on bone growth cells, lowers blood Ca levels- encorages bone cells to take up calcium
Which hormone does the parathyroid gland release?
- Nonsteroidal hormone
- *Parathyroid hormone (PTH): acts on digestive cells, kidney cells and bone cells and increases blood Ca levels
Which hormone does the testes release?
- steroidal hormone
- *testosterone which develops male secondary sex characteristics, regulates development and normal functioning of sperm, male reproductive organs and male sex drive
Which hormones do the ovaries release?
- steroidal hormones
- *estrogen and progesterone which control reproductive cycles and development of female secondary sex characteristics
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