Physics: 1-5.txt

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natalieplana
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82962
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Physics: 1-5.txt
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2011-05-01 11:12:46
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NPMCAT
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Lectures 1-5
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  1. translational motion:
    distance, velocity, acceleration. time
    x = x0 + v0t + (1/2)at2
  2. translational motion:
    velocity, acceleration and distance
    v2 = v02 + 2ax
  3. translational motion:
    velocity, acceleration and time
    v = v0 + at
  4. how does a projectile stay in motion? what keeps it in motion?
    inertia
  5. peak height of a projectile
    v0 = sin(0) - sq.rt.(2gh)
  6. horizontal distance traveled of a projectile
    x = vt . cos(0)
  7. peak velocity
    no velocity, but acceleration = 10
  8. PE and KE of projectile object at its peak
    • PE is maximized
    • KE is minimized

    (energy must be conserved)
  9. projectile path is independent of....
    mass
  10. two objects launched with the same velocity will...
    hit the ground at the same moment
  11. what determines the time of flight?
    vertical velocity
  12. range of projectile is maximized at what angle from the horizontal?
    450
  13. symmetry of projectile says what? (speed wise)
    upward mirrors downward -

    initial speed = final speed
  14. air resistance is greater on (surface area, shape, and speed)
    • larger surface area
    • irregularly shaped
    • greater speed
  15. does mass affect force or path of air resistance
    force = no

    path = yes
  16. how does greater mass affect air resistance
    force is the same, so it decreases acceleration

    (F=ma)
  17. centripetal force (equation)
    F = m . v2/r
  18. inertia
    tendency of an object to stay in present state of motion

    (keeps projectile in motion)
  19. law of universal gravitation
    F = G(m1m2)/r2
  20. friction points in what direction?
    always parallel to surface
  21. equation for torque
    t = F r sin0
  22. if the board has mass, what do you do with torque?
    F=mg at center of board
  23. equation for work (not for gases)
    W = Fd cos0
  24. what direction is friction (relative to work)?
    friction does negative work!
  25. work done lifting an object
    W = Fd = mg x h
  26. what is gravitational potential energy?
    work done by gravity:

    change PE = -W
  27. energy and power
    energy = work + heat

    so, P = (w + q)/s
  28. 1 revolution is equal to
    2 pi r
  29. equation for angular momentum
    L = l x m x v

    l = lever arm, mv = linear momentum
  30. elastic collision
    mechanical energy is conserved
  31. inelastic collision
    mechanical energy is lost to internal energy (heat)
  32. perfect inelastic collision
    2 objects stick together
  33. reverse inelasitc collisions (object dissipates into 2 sep. objects). In what direction do they travel
    opposite to each other
  34. ex: man standing on a board and jumps off

    what do you need to consider when determining their final positions?
    move in opposite directions

    consider their centers of gravity
  35. what is impulse?
    change in momentum
  36. Machine: inclined plane (how is work minimized?)
    straight up: W = ugh

    ramp: W = mg x sin x h
  37. What is theta equal to in the ramp
    height of ramp / distance of the ramp


    the greater the distance (d) the smaller the angle, the less work needed
  38. Machine: lever (torque)

    what does F need to equal to lift mass?
    F = mg in opposite direction
  39. How do you decrease the force required to life the object?
    increasing the lever arm

    (doubling lever arm, reduces force by a factor of 2)
  40. In a pulley, what is the tension in the rope?
    constant

    Tension = Force
  41. In a double pulley system, what is the force required to lift mass m?
    F = T

    T = 2mg

    F = (mg)/2
  42. alpha decay
    2 protons, 2 neutrons
  43. traveling of alpha particle
    not far

    stopped by skin, paper
  44. beta decay
    expulsion of an e-
  45. positron
    B+ is emitted (-1 atomic #)
  46. electron capture
    gain e- (-1 atomic number
  47. frequency of a gamma particle
    high frequency particle
  48. rest mass energy
    E = mc2
  49. fussion combining 2 (?) from (?)
    combining 2 nuclei

    from a heavier nucleus
  50. fission
    splitting a single nucleus into 2 lighter nuclei
  51. where does energy for fusion and fission come from?
    mass defect
  52. density formula
    density = m/v
  53. density constant for gases and liquids?
    constant for liquids and solids

    change for gases, because they are compressible
  54. What is specific gravity?
    density of a substance compared to density of water
  55. so specific gravity of water is
    1
  56. formula for fluid pressure
    P = F/A
  57. Do fluids at rest have uniform density in a sealed container?
    yes
  58. What is the pressure experience by fluids at rest with uniform density?
    P = density x g x y

    y = depth of fluid
  59. Where is pressure greatest for a fluid at rest?
    greatest depth (P=pgy)
  60. What if you have many fluids layered in a sealed container?
    P = (pgy)1 + (pgy)2 + (pgy)3...........
  61. What is the pressure of a fluid at rest with uniform density in an open container
    add atmospheric pressure to density x g x y
  62. hydraulic lift (equation)
    pressure is transferred completely:

    F1/A1 = F2/A2
  63. What is the velocity of a fluid flowing (if you don't know rate or area)?
    v = sq.rt (2gh)
  64. buoyant force
    upward force acting on a submerged object
  65. what is buoyant force equal to? (not equation)
    weight of fluid displaced by submerged object
  66. equation for buoyant force
    FB = (density of fluid) x (volume) x (g)
  67. floating object -
    submerged portion of object =

    density of object/density of fluid
  68. How much of an object will float in water if its specific gravity is 0.4?
    60%
  69. does buoyant force change with depth?
    No
  70. What is the apparent mass on an object (when it is submerged)?
    mass of the fluid displaced

    thats why we weigh so little in water
  71. equation for fluid flow
    Q = (area)(volume)
  72. does fluid flow faster in a wider pipe, or a more narrow pipe?
    narrow
  73. ideal fluid flows at a constant rate
    K = Pressure + (density)(g)(h) + (1.2)(p)(v2)

    K is constant, specific to fluid in a flow
  74. surface tension and temperature
    increase temperature = weaker surface tension
  75. formula for stress
    force/area
  76. formula for strain
    change in dimension/original dimension
  77. what are stress and strain
    stress is done on an object

    strain is how the object responds
  78. modulus of elasticity
    stress/strain

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