A disease that is acquired in a clinical setting is known as a
A ______ is someone who does not become sick when harboring an infectious pathogen but has the potential to transmit the infectious pathogen to others
Thweability to cause disease is associated with the _____of a pathogen
Microorganisms that normally colonize the skin and mucous membranes are referred to as ?
A pathogen can be transmitted to a new host by...
IF an individual's host defense is not functioning correctly, they are considered to be... ?
The outcome of a infection is primarily dependent on _______, which, when adequately activated, eradicate the pathogen.
The chemical process that takes place inside every cell and is responsible for the production of energy is referred to as ?
When a large complex molecule is breoken down into smaller moleules, ____ has occured.
A pohotoautotroph is a microogranism that uses _____ as its carbon source and _____ as its energy source
When an oxidation reaction is coupled with a reduction reaction, this is rferred to as
a redox reaction
In a chemical reaction, molecule X has gained one electron and has therefore been...
The location where a substrate fits into an enzyme is known as the ..?
Enzyme reactions are affected by ...
Concntration of substrate
What are 4 characterisitics of glycolysis?
Net production of 2 ATP
Glucose is oxidized to 2 pyruvate molecules
True or false... glycolysis takes place on microbial cell membranes or on the inner membrane of the mitochondrion
What are 3 characterisitics of the kreb cycle?
Oxidation of carbon to CO2
Transfer of electrions to NAD and FAD
True or false, in the kreb cycle there is a direct acceptance of pyruvate, a three0carbon molecule, from glycolysis
What is required to fuel anabolic reactions in cells?
What is the classification for a living organism that lacks a nucleus and other membrane-bound structures?
Bacteria which have a spherical or ovoid shape are called
Which of the following does not include a multicellular arrangemnet seen with spherical bacteria?
microscopic examination of staph aureus would reveal
clusters of cocci
Teh majority of bacteria are either__ or ___
gram - or gram +
Organisms that exploit a host's decreased resistance ot infection and cause disease are referred to as
A successful infection by a pathogen requires that
the pathogen is able to multiply
the paghetn is transmissable to new hosts
Teh properties a pathogen possesses that permit establishment and the evasion of host defenses are called
Locations where pathogens gain access to a host are fererred to as
portals of entry
Which of the following is not associated with the portal of entry referred to as the parenteral route?
___ are used by many pathogens to assist with anchoring them to host tissue
A ____ is a thich layer of proteins, bacteria and matrix that coasts yoru teeth and provides a perfec environment or bacteria to expand and erode your teeth.
Infectious dose 50% (ID50) refers to the number of organisms required..
for 50% of exposed to show sigs of infection
____ made by bacteria destroys red blood cells in the host
Cnnective tissue in the host is compromised by the production of _____ by bacteria
Which of the following is not a characteristic of exotoxins
cause disseminated intravascularclotting
lethal in small doses
causes diseminated iv clotting
which of the following is not a characteristic of endotoxins
extremely stable at high temps
induce fever in host
lethal in small doses
lethal in small doses
the location where infectious organisms can multiply and accumulate is referred to as the
An individual who seems healthy but infects others with disease-causing paothgens is known as a
Contact transmission may occur indirectly when a nonliving intermediate called a _____ is involved
Which of the following is not an example of contact transmission?
a housefly transfers pathogens from cow manure to the eye of a human
Infections with ____ are especially problematic in burn patients
The most common anatomical site for a ospital-borne infection is
the urinary tract
The number of new cases of a particular disease contracted within defined population in a specified period is referred to as the ____ of the disease
the total number of ppl affected by a disease at any given time is the _____ of the disease
What is he term used to describe diseases that rise sharply of a global scale?
An epidemic arising from a shared, contaminated water supply is a
____ is the term used by microbiologists to describe the underlying cause of a disease
The ____of the body consists of a variety of microorganisms that case no harm to healhy hosts
The presenfe of bacteria in the blood is referred to as
A ___ disease is one in whic symptoms reappear at a time much later than the original infection
If pathogens spread to the bloodstream or lymphatics and disseminate to other parts of the boyd, a _____ occurs
Diseases that take a long period to develop and also remain for long periods are referred to as
What are 2 characteritics of toxic shock?
plamsa leaks from circualtion into tissue spaces
_____ has a sudden onset and causes widespread inflammation and necrosis of tissues
acte septic shock
neutrophils release ___ when bound to m proten: firbrinogen complexes during infections wth streptococcus pyogenes
A new virus has been identified by DNA sequencing methods in a remote location in the south pacific. Te who is very concerned because infection with this virus has a death rae of 20% of all infected individuals and no vaccine is available. This is an example of a(n)______ disease
Developing nations have seen a dramatic decrease in the number of fatal infectious diseases in the 20th century, attributed mainly to the
development of antbiotics
When gene segments are rearranged between two different viral strains through a gene "shufflig" event, this is called
SARS is trnsmitted by all of the following mechanisms except
t or f... electron transport occurs in the cytoplasm
false, it does not
what do neurotoxins do?
disrupt signal transduction in the cells of the nervous system
true or false.. exotoxins make up part of the cell wall of gram positive bacteria
false, endos do for gram neg, but not exos for gram pos
Pateints with neutropenia are more susceptible to....
bacterial and fungal infections
t or f... neutropenia refers to a type of anemia in which rbc numbers are lower than usual
false, it refers to a low wbc count
Males and females are jut as likelty to acquire utis
false, women are more likely because they have a shorter urethra
an emerging infectious disease
t or f.... legionaires disease is a re-emerging disease
false, it is not
What are Koch's postulates?
Every organism that cuases a specific disease must be the same
Pathogen is isolated from infected host
Pure pathgoen is put into different host and causes same disase