chapter8 questions

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chapter8 questions
2011-05-02 10:56:29
chapter8 questions

chapter8 questions
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  1. neuroglia
    supporting cells
  2. supporting cells
  3. autonomic nervous system
    controls smooth & cardiac muscle, glands, & fat cells
  4. controls smooth & cardiac muscle, glands, & fat cells
    autonomic nervous system
  5. sensory neurons
    afferent division of the PNS
  6. afferent division of the PNS
    sensory neurons
  7. dual innervation
    opposing effects
  8. opposing effects
    dual innervation
  9. ganglia
    masses of neuron cell bodies
  10. masses of neuron cell bodies
  11. oligodendrocytes
    cover CNS axons w/ myelin
  12. cover CNS axons w/ myelin
  13. ascending tracts
    carry sensory information to the brain
  14. carry sensory information to the brain
    ascending tracts
  15. descending tracts
    carry motor commands to spinal cord
  16. carry motor commands to spinal cord
    descending tracts
  17. saltatory propagation
    occurs along myelinated axons
  18. occurs along myelinated axons
    saltatory propagation
  19. continuous propagation
    occurs along unmyelinated axons
  20. occurs along unmyelinated axons
    continuous propagation
  21. dura mater
    outermost covering of brain & spinal cord
  22. outermost covering of brain & spinal cord
    dura mater
  23. monosynaptic reflex
    stretch reflex
  24. stretch reflex
    monosynaptic reflex
  25. sympathetic division
    "fight or flight"
  26. "fight or flight"
    sympathetic division
  27. cerebellum
    maintains muscle tone & posture
  28. maintains muscle tone & posture
  29. somatic nervous system
    controls contractions of skeletal muscle
  30. controls contractions of skeletal muscle
    somatic nervous system
  31. hypothalamus
    link between nervous & endocrine system
  32. link between nervous & endocrine system
  33. medulla oblongata
    connects the brain to the spinal cord
  34. connects the brain to the spinal cord
    medulla oblongata
  35. choroid plexus
    production of CSF
  36. production of CSF
    choroid plexus
  37. parasympathetic division
    "rest & repose"
  38. "rest & repose"
    parasympathetic division
  39. motor neurons
    efferent division of the PNS
  40. efferent division of the PNS
    motor neurons
  41. Regulation of the nervous system provides...
    swift but brief responses to stimuli.
  42. All the motor neurons that control skeletal muscles are...
    multipolar neurons.
  43. Depolarization of a neuron cell membrane will shift the membrane potential torward...
    0 mV.
  44. The structural & functional link between the cerebral hemispheres & the components of the brain stem is the...
  45. The ventricles of the brain are filled with...
    cerebrospinal fluid.
  46. Reading, writing, & speaking are dependent on processing in the...
    left cerebral hemisphere.
  47. Establishment of emotional states & related behavioral drives are functions of the...
    limbic system.
  48. The final relay point for ascending sensory information that will be projected to the primary sensory cortex is the...
  49. Spinal nerves are called mixed nerves because they...
    contain sensory & motor fibers.
  50. There is always a synapse between the CNS & the peripheral effector in...
    the ANS.
  51. Approximately 75% of parasympathetic outflow is provided by the...
    vagus nerve.
  52. State the all-or-none principle of action potentials.
    The properties of the action potential are independent of the relative strength of the depolarization stimulus.
  53. Using the mnemonic device "Oh, Once One Takes The Anatomy Final, Very Good Vacations Are Heavenly", list the 12 pairs of cranial nerves & their functions.
    • 1) olfactory (smell)
    • 2) optic (visual)
    • 3) oculomotor (control 4 of 6 muscles of eye)
    • 4) trochlear (innervate the superior oblique eye muscles)
    • 5) trigeminal (mixed - ophthalmic, maxillary, & mandibular)
    • 6) abducens (sixth extrinsic eye muscle - lateral rectus)
    • 7) facial (scalp & face - presure & taste)
    • 8) vestibulocochlear (balance, position, & movement; & cochlear nerves monitor hearing)
    • 9) glossopharyngeal (mixed - innervate the tongue & pharynx & control swallowing)
    • 10) vagus (mixed - autonomic control of visceral func. & have variety of motor)
    • 11) accessory (internal branch wh/ inervates vol swallowing muscles of soft palate & external branch controls muscles assoc w/ the pectoral girdle)
    • 12) hypoclossal (voluntary control over tongue movements)
  54. How does the emergence of sympathetic fibers from the spinal cord differ from the emergence of parasympathetic fiber?
    The sympathetic preganglionic fibers emerge from the thoracolumbar area (T1 - L2) of the spinal cord. The parasympathetic firbers emerge from the brain stem & sacral region of the spinal cord (craniosacral).
  55. A graded potential...
    • a) decreases w/ distance from the point of stimulation
    • b) spreads passively because of local currents
    • c) may involve either depolarization or hyperpolarization
  56. The loss of positive ions from the interior of a neuron produces...
  57. What would happen if the ventral root of a spinal verve was damaged or transected?
    Since the ventral roots contain axons of motor neurons, those muscles controlled by the neurons of the damaged root would be paralyzed.
  58. Which major part of the brain is associated with respiratory & cardiac activity?
    medulla oblongata
  59. Why is response time in a monosynaptic reflex much faster thabn response time in a polysynaptic reflex?
    A monosynaptic reflex only has 1 synapes vs more than 1 in the polysynaptic reflex.
  60. Compare the general effects of sympathetic & parasympathetic divisions of the ANS.
    • 1) mental alertness S+ P-
    • 2) metabolic rate S+ P-
    • 3) digestive/urinary func S- P+
    • 4) use of energy reserves S+ P-
    • 5) respiratory rate S+ P-
    • 6) heart rate/BP S+ P-
    • 7) sweat glands S+ P-