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What is a protein?
a group of compounds composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen arranged into amino acids.
What is a amino acid?
building blocks of protein
What does an amino acid structure look like?
each contain an amino group, an acid group, a hydrogen atom, and a distinctive side group all attached to a central carbon.
Proteins are more complex then carbs because?
they have different side chains on amino acids.
Common structures of an amino acid?
- differ in size, shape, electrical charge, and other characteristics which leads to different biological properties.
- this changes there function.
What are the essential A.A. and how many?
What are the nonessential A.A. and how many?
- aspartic acid
- glutamic acid
how many non essential a.a. are in newborns?
- 5 a.a.
- all others are essential until pathways function right.
Phenylalanine is used to make what?
People with PKu cant make tyrosine so its?
conditionally essential for them.
essential you get from?
non-essential you get from?
making it in your body.
Taurine is a?
beta amino acid containing a sulfonyl group.
What are the defficiencies of Taurine?
- decrease growth
- retinal degeneration
Taurine is found in significant quantities in what?
- they float in body as free amino acid.
Taurine can be made in the?
- body but might not have enough so have to eat some.
- supplemented in all major infant formulas.
What is deAmination?
a.a. be used for energy but to do so the nitrogen needs to be removed for this process.
What is Amination?
- chemical process that your body takes fat and carbs to make a.a.
- adding nitrogen group (NH3) to it makes it happen
What is a peptide bond?
- the bond that connects the acid end of one a.a. with the amino end of another, forming a link in a protein chain.
- - condenstation reaction
What is transamination and synthesis of a nonessential a.a.?
- one molecule to another making it from another a.a.
- Transform amino group (NH3) from amino acid to keto acid to form a new amino acid and new keto acid.
The nonessential a.a are made involves?
using other a.a.
most protein contains how many a.a.?
a few dozen to several hundred.
poly peptide is a?
what type of peptides can you have?
- sequence of a.a. tells them what to do.
- uncoiling of a protein
- happens when you heat it up
- easier to digest
Shape of a protein structure does what?
- gives different functions
- different structures let them do different things
- different side chains on different a.a. have various chemical properties
- -water to the inside forces twist and bend in the protein.
what is the role of protein in food?
is not to provide specific body protein directly but to supply the a.a. from which the body can make its own proteins.
hydrochloric does what?
denatures protein activates pepsion.
pepsion does what?
break protein up to small units.
What is protein digestion?
digestion-->AA-->absorption-->blood-->tissues--> make protein that we need.
DNA stands for?
RNA stands for?
- step 1 of protein synthesis overview
- uncoil DNA and copy it to mRNA
- goes on in nucleous then leaves.
protein made from DNA is what makes you?
- gene expression is protein expression.
- transfer RNA bring a.a to mRNA
- have to be in a certain order
- tells which one to site down.
- translating them into protein.
- hemogloben can't carry oxygen well.
proteins are very versatile what 2 things can they do?
facilitate actions in the body and sometimes they are just used.
An enzyme is?
protein that facilitate chemical reactions w/out being changed in the process.
3 jobs of an enzyme are?
- 1. break down substance
- 2. make a new substance
- 3. transform a substance into another
collogen makes up?
- most of bone and tissue
- building blocks protein in our tissue.
- chemical messengers not all hormones are protein but most are.
- tell certain part of the body to do something.
Fluid balance is?
- control of fluid inside cell and outside of cell
- water goes were protein is
with in blood vessels.
3 ways adema occurs?
- 1. excessive protein due to kidney disease
- 2. inadiquit protein sithases due to protein
- 3. inadiquit protein intake
- acids release h ions to buffer
- protein w/ neg. charge accepts them
different proteins transport all sorts of things.
immunity antigen is?
- anything you are exposed to that is not you.
- -body makes antibody that are protein.
- -these proteins allow you to have immunity
Fibrin is critical for?
opsin is in?
retna of eye (protein) when light hits protein it will change canfirmation ineshats sights
Functions of protein as energy?
- protein can be used for energy
- can be used to provide energy and glucose.
protein turnover is?
constantly breaking down protein and have to make new ones.
Nitrogen balance is?
in a healthy adult protein sythises equals degrigation and protein intake (dietary) equals nitrogen excrition in feces, sweat, urine
Nitrogen balance is used to?
estimate of protein requirement.
zero nitrogen balance (equilibrium)
Nin > Nout
- positive nitrogen balance
- body senthesies moves protein then it degreades
- ex: pregnancy and growth (children)
Nin < Nout
- negative nitrogen balance
- body breaks down more protein then it makes.
- ex: some one starving
how do you Make nonessential a.a.
breaking proteins down out of essiential a.a.
how do you make other compounds?
a.a. tyrosine used to make neurotransmitters
What does energy do in the roles of a.a.?
- main way store energy- fat
- not bodies intent to store energy as protein
- when it is deprived of energy it will use this.
- -body will lose lean mass
What are the 2 protein quality?
- 1. does this provide proper balance of a.a. for body needs
- 2. is it digestable
Complete protein contains?
- All essential a.a. must be provided at the sametime for protein sythesis to occur
- - 1 missing, a.a.= no protein
Digestibility measures amount of?
amino acids absorbs for a given protein intake.
high quality proteins?
- make all essintial amino acids needs in relavent to a human requires.
- ex: meat-red, fish, poultry
Complementary proteins are?
- two or more dietary protein that when put together you get all essential a.a.
- ex: beans and rice
reference point is?
- a standard protein that meets the essential a.a. requirements of preschool-age children
- -egg usually used
Amino acid (chemical) scoring?
- compare protein in food to gold standard (egg)
- lower chemical score not as good for you.
- may not reflect the way the body will use protein.
- fails to take into account digestibility of a protein.
Protein digestibility-corrected a.a. score
- like a.a. scoring
- takes into account digestibility
measures of efficiency of a protein to support the body's needs.
look back over pae 9 in notes
Protein efficiency ratio?
- measure weight gain in growing animals compared to its protein intake.
- growing animal- feed it source of protein if it grows good source if not can figure out why.
- nothing will go in baby food unless it goes through this.
not getting all nutritients they need.
acute energy malnutrition?
- PEM caused be a recient event of food restriction
- -can tell by normal height thin for height
Chronic energy malnutrition?
- long term food depervation
- -will be short for age
Health effects of protein?
- if you don't have protein and can't make it you will die.
- no matter quality of calories not getting enough body will use protein for energy.
- Chronic PEM- lack in both energy and protein
- -defisiant in almost everything
- - impair muscle and brain development
- - running on very basis of living life
- - body not good at absorbing nutrients
Kwashiorkor is and the infections?
- can not make lipoproteins that carry fat from the liver so you end up with a fatty liver.
- -no antibodies = increase infection
- -increase infection= increase kwashiorkor
- - other proteins decrease making them mroe suseptable to infection
Kwashiorkor acute verion of PEM is?
- getting enough calorie but not enough protein
- -kids will have adema (swelling in abdominal area)
eat nothing to do with animal diet
eat milk based products
eat milk and eggs