neuroscience

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keys77
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83006
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neuroscience
Updated:
2011-05-01 21:43:12
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midterm
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  1. premotor strip
    broadmans area 6
  2. broca's area
    broadman's area 44,45
  3. heschel's byrus
    broadmans area 41, 42
  4. wernick's area
    broadmans area 22
  5. primary sensory cortex also holds the post central gyrus
    parietal lobe
  6. lateral sulcus
    sylvian fissure
  7. central sulcus
    fissure of rolando
  8. primary visual cortex
    occipital lobe
  9. primary auditory cortex
    temporal lobes
  10. found in the left hemisphere ability to sound out unfamiliar words
    wiernicke's area
  11. the primary mother cortes is located in the ____gyrus
    precentral
  12. the ____ tract is the major deceding voluntary motor tract
    pyramidal
  13. cortical areas involved in audition are found in the ___
    temporal lobe
  14. the specialize motor speech area is located at the base of the precentral gyrus in an area called _____
    broca's area
  15. frontal lobe
    the primary motor area in the ____ is involved in the intiation of voluntary movements
  16. left hemisphere is a little larger
    90% left dominant for language for most people 10% right dominant
    which hemisphere is a little larger? and why?
  17. commisural fibers same hemisphere
    association fibers opposite hemisphere
    fiber tracts
  18. two himispheres divided into 4 lobes
    frontal, parietal, temporal, occiptital
    telen cephalon
  19. (horse's tail)
    collection of spiral nerves
    cauda equina
  20. a swelling on the course of a nerve
    corresponds to a collection of nerves
    ganglion
  21. gaps between schwann cells on myelinated
    nodes of vanvier
  22. junction between 2 neurons or muscle, gland
    synapse
  23. sensory and motor nerves in brain and spinal cord
    interneurons
  24. space between bulb and plasma membrain
    synaptic cleft
  25. regulates ANS and endocrine by governing pituitary gland
    hypothalamus
  26. sensory info to the cerebum
    thalamus
  27. what protects the brain and spinal cord
    meninges
  28. relay nerve impulses fromone side of the cerebellum to another
    pons
  29. a myelin sheat that surrounds only axons in the PNS
    schwann cells
  30. ________ is a structual support of delecat CNS neurons and is a part of the blood-brain barrier
    astrocytes
  31. The pathway for a simple nervous reaction is _____ _____.
    reflex arc
  32. The _______ carries nerve impulses form the cerbrum to the pons and sensory impulses from the spinal cord to the thalamus
    midbrain
  33. ________ is a white fatty substance that craps around the axon and insulates while helping the impulses travel faster.
    myelin sheath
  34. _________ carry info away from the cell body of the neuron.
    axons
  35. __________ is located between the cerebrum and midbrain and has 2 main parts the ________ and __________?
    • DIENCEPHALON
    • Thalamus
    • hypothalamus
  36. ________ _________ is the ________ and ________ between the spinal cord and brain.
    • Medula Oblongata
    • SENSORY
    • motor
  37. __________ is a large band of neural fibers conecting the two brain hemisphers and carying messages between them.
    Corpus Callosum
  38. Dendrites
    • are bushy, branding extension of a neuron
    • recieves messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
    • are tree like
  39. efferent
    imfo going fromt he brain
  40. information going to the brain is _________.
    afferent
  41. Glia
    • cells that support, nurture and insulate neurons
    • remove debris when neurons die
  42. _______ enhance the formation and maintenance of neural connections and modify neural functioning.
    Glial cells
  43. a cell that conducts electrochemical signals.
    the basic unit of the nervous system.
    also called a nerve cell.
    neurons
  44. Parasympathetic Nervous System
    • subdivision of the autonomic nervous system that operates during
    • 1. relaxed states
    • 2. conserves energy
    • "BRAKE"
  45. Sympathetic Nervous System
    • subdivision of the automonic nervous system that
    • 1. mobilizes bodily resources
    • 2. increases the output of energy during emotion and stress
    • "ACCELERATOR"
  46. Subdivision of the PNS that regulates the internal organs and glands.
    Autonomic Nervous System
  47. subdivision of the PNS that connects to sensory receptors and skeletal muscles
    aka skeletal nervous system
    Somatic Nervous System
  48. ALL portions of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord..... includes the sensory and motor nerves
    • Perpheral Nervous System
    • PNS
  49. Spinal Cord
    • collection of neurons
    • supportive tissue running from the base of the brain downt eh center of the back
    • protected by a colum of bones
  50. Central Nervous System
    CNS
    The portionof the nercous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
  51. all from the head & neck - percieved through cranial nerves
    Special Senses
  52. General Senses
    Spinal Nerves
  53. General Senses
    • Touch
    • Pain
    • Movement
    • Vibration
    • Position
  54. Hearing- VIII
    Vision- II
    Taste- VII & IX
    Smell- I
    Balance- part of inner ear CNVIII
    Special Senses
  55. orientation of your body in space ( kinesthesia)
    Proprioception
  56. touch, pressure, vibration, kinethesia
    Mechanoreceptive senses
  57. temperature
    Thermoreceptive senses
  58. deals with pain
    Nociception
  59. info coming from environment
    Hearing, vision, smell, touch, superficial pain, temperature, itching, tickling, taste
    Exteroceptors
  60. Proprioceptors
    • deeper sensations in the muscles , joints, ear
    • Pressure
    • movement
    • vibration
    • position
    • deep pain
    • equilibrium
  61. Visceral pain, visceral pressure
    - internal sensations from the visera (your
    gut) heart, lungs, etc,
    Interoceptors
  62. _________ is another word for tract
    Finiculus
  63. I feel it or I don't
    Crude touch
  64. Cell bodies in the PNS are called _________
    ganglion
  65. cell bodies in the CNS are called ________
    Nuclei
  66. Nodes of Ranvier
    gaps between myelin
  67. multiple sclerosis is caused by
    de-myelination
  68. end point of informantion in the cell body
    terminal button
  69. Dorsal root carries
    sensory information
  70. Ventral root carries
    motor information
  71. Termination of a "synapse" can happen on:
    • and axon
    • cell body
    • or dendrite
  72. has 2 order neurons UMN and LMN
    Pyramidal system
  73. Upper Motor Neuron
    housed within the CNS
  74. Lover Motor Neurons
    housed within the PNS
  75. Bulbar
    refers to brainstem structures
  76. LMN in the corticalspinal tract is a
    spinal nerve
  77. LMN in the corticalbulbar tract is a
    carnial nerve
  78. If a Lesion occurs in the anterior tract of the pyramidal system the outcome is not that bad BECAUSE
    10-15% of the fibers use that tract
  79. 85-90% of fibers in the pyramidal system use the _________ tract and if a lesion occurs the outcome is _______.
    • Lateral
    • BAD!
  80. In the pyramiday system the _______ is the 1st order neruron.
    UMN
  81. LMN is the ______ order neuron in the pyramidal system.
    2nd
  82. __________ _______ is composed of the UMN of the cranial nerves
    coticobulbar tract
  83. corticobulbar tract innervate eyes in the
    right and left hemispheres
  84. Pyramidal system is comprised of two tracts:
    • Corticospinal
    • Coticobulbar
  85. two much muscle contraction with bilateral damage int he upper neurons (damage to UMN)
    Spastic paralysis
  86. Hpertonia
    increased muscle tone (damage to UMN)
  87. (damage to UMN) can cause an increase of exaggerated reflexes and is called__________.
    Hyper-reflexia
  88. The ________ ________ is when the doctors test an infant to see if when a heel to big toe stroke makes the toes fan out. (this should not present in adults)(damage to UMN)
    Positive Babinski refex
  89. Denervation is:
    • loss of nerve supply that results in decreased sensations
    • Impulses to muscles are impared (damage to LMN)
  90. decreased muscle tone, astrophy of muscles are present in ________.
    Hypotonia (damage to LMN)
  91. Fribrillations are
    twitching of a single muscle....(damage to LMN)
  92. Twitching of muscle groups are called ________.
    Fasciculation
  93. No reflexes present
    Areflexia
  94. A more crude, primitive pathway is
    The Extra Pyramidal System
  95. The ________ structures are where movement tends to be initiated
    (basal ganglia) brainstem
  96. striatum is aka
    • corpus striatum
    • neostriatum
    • striate nucleus
  97. ________ is apart of the forebrain and subcortal (inside rather than outside)
    the striatum
  98. The striatum is the major input station of the _______ ________ system.
    basil ganglia
  99. The _______ ______ inputs into the striatum.
    cerebral cortex
  100. In ________ the striatum is divided by a _______ _______ tract called the ________ _________ and ________.
    • primates
    • White Matter
    • Caudate Nucleus
    • Putamen
  101. Dyskinesias
    uncoordinated movements
  102. Hyperkinesia
    too much movement
  103. Hypokinesia
    too little movements
  104. when muscles are at rest and there is shaking this is a
    resting tremor
  105. This happens when uscles are resisting gravity
    Postural tremors
  106. ________ tremors happen during ________ movements
    • Intention
    • purposeful
  107. damage to the basal ganglia brings upon ___________ desiese
    Huntington's
  108. Athetosis
    • writhing, rhythemic, slow irregular corse movements
    • associated with Huntington's desiese
  109. Quick random hyperkinetic movements are_________.
    Chorea
  110. Dystonia
    • abnormal excess tone of muscles
    • severe craming, writers cramp
  111. A sharp brief muscle contraction that looks similar to a muscle jerk and normally happens after a stroke is called ________.
    Myoclonus
  112. Tardive dyskinesia
    • Syndrome where the mouth, face, jaw, and tongue
    • characterized by repetitive, involuntary, purposeless movements, such as
    • grimacing, tongue protrusion, lip smacking, puckering and pursing of
    • the lips, and rapid eye blinking
  113. Disarthria
    • decreased muscle movement, strength, range of motion, and coordination for speech production
    • the "type" depends on where the lesion is...in the cerebellum the result is ataxic
  114. Cerebellar system
    • responsible for coordination
    • makes muscles smooth
    • maintains posture and balance
    • regulates rapid alternating movements
  115. two hemispheres that are divided into 3 lobes
    cerebellar system anatomy
  116. In the cerebellar system the _________ lobe is responsible for __________ posture.
    • anterior
    • regulating
  117. In the cerebellar system the _________ lobe is responsible for _________ of _________ movement.
    • Posterior
    • coordination
    • muscle
  118. In the cerebellar system the _____________lobe regulates ___________.
    • Flocculonodule
    • equilibrium
  119. The _________ connects two cerebellar hemispheres.
    Vermis
  120. __________ ________ is important stopping points for the connections throughout that is located in the _______ _______.
    • Cerebellar nuclei
    • White matter
  121. __________ have a specific funtion and serve as a _________ for certain bundles of fibers in the cerebellar system.
    • Peduncles
    • pathway
  122. Inferior Peduncles
    ________ _________ carry afferent information primarily for the upper part of the body in addition to containg info about balance in the cerebellar system.
  123. Middle Peduncles
    in the corticopontocerebellar tract carries info from the cortex about motor movements in order to make the movements smooth.
  124. Superior Peduncles
    The passage way for sensory fibers. they come from the lower part of the body through the dentrorubrothalamic trac and ventral spinocerebellar tract.
  125. ataxia
    general discoordination
  126. decomposition of movement
    movement that is robot like
  127. dysmetria
    inability to gauge distance, speed and/or power of movement
  128. adiadochokinesia
    inability to perform rapidly alternating movements
  129. Hypertonia
    • decreased tone
    • flaccid muscle

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