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broadmans area 6
broadman's area 44,45
broadmans area 41, 42
broadmans area 22
primary sensory cortex also holds the post central gyrus
fissure of rolando
primary visual cortex
primary auditory cortex
found in the left hemisphere ability to sound out unfamiliar words
the primary mother cortes is located in the ____gyrus
the ____ tract is the major deceding voluntary motor tract
cortical areas involved in audition are found in the ___
the specialize motor speech area is located at the base of the precentral gyrus in an area called _____
the primary motor area in the ____ is involved in the intiation of voluntary movements
left hemisphere is a little larger
90% left dominant for language for most people 10% right dominant
which hemisphere is a little larger? and why?
commisural fibers same hemisphere
association fibers opposite hemisphere
two himispheres divided into 4 lobes
frontal, parietal, temporal, occiptital
collection of spiral nerves
a swelling on the course of a nerve
corresponds to a collection of nerves
gaps between schwann cells on myelinated
nodes of vanvier
junction between 2 neurons or muscle, gland
sensory and motor nerves in brain and spinal cord
space between bulb and plasma membrain
regulates ANS and endocrine by governing pituitary gland
sensory info to the cerebum
what protects the brain and spinal cord
relay nerve impulses fromone side of the cerebellum to another
a myelin sheat that surrounds only axons in the PNS
________ is a structual support of delecat CNS neurons and is a part of the blood-brain barrier
The pathway for a simple nervous reaction is _____ _____.
The _______ carries nerve impulses form the cerbrum to the pons and sensory impulses from the spinal cord to the thalamus
________ is a white fatty substance that craps around the axon and insulates while helping the impulses travel faster.
_________ carry info away from the cell body of the neuron.
__________ is located between the cerebrum and midbrain and has 2 main parts the ________ and __________?
________ _________ is the ________ and ________ between the spinal cord and brain.
- Medula Oblongata
__________ is a large band of neural fibers conecting the two brain hemisphers and carying messages between them.
- are bushy, branding extension of a neuron
- recieves messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
- are tree like
imfo going fromt he brain
information going to the brain is _________.
- cells that support, nurture and insulate neurons
- remove debris when neurons die
_______ enhance the formation and maintenance of neural connections and modify neural functioning.
a cell that conducts electrochemical signals.
the basic unit of the nervous system.
also called a nerve cell.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
- subdivision of the autonomic nervous system that operates during
- 1. relaxed states
- 2. conserves energy
Sympathetic Nervous System
- subdivision of the automonic nervous system that
- 1. mobilizes bodily resources
- 2. increases the output of energy during emotion and stress
Subdivision of the PNS that regulates the internal organs and glands.
Autonomic Nervous System
subdivision of the PNS that connects to sensory receptors and skeletal muscles
aka skeletal nervous system
Somatic Nervous System
ALL portions of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord..... includes the sensory and motor nerves
- Perpheral Nervous System
- collection of neurons
- supportive tissue running from the base of the brain downt eh center of the back
- protected by a colum of bones
Central Nervous System
The portionof the nercous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
all from the head & neck - percieved through cranial nerves
Taste- VII & IX
Balance- part of inner ear CNVIII
orientation of your body in space ( kinesthesia)
touch, pressure, vibration, kinethesia
deals with pain
info coming from environment
Hearing, vision, smell, touch, superficial pain, temperature, itching, tickling, taste
- deeper sensations in the muscles , joints, ear
- deep pain
Visceral pain, visceral pressure
- internal sensations from the visera (your
gut) heart, lungs, etc,
_________ is another word for tract
I feel it or I don't
Cell bodies in the PNS are called _________
cell bodies in the CNS are called ________
Nodes of Ranvier
gaps between myelin
multiple sclerosis is caused by
end point of informantion in the cell body
Dorsal root carries
Ventral root carries
Termination of a "synapse" can happen on:
- and axon
- cell body
- or dendrite
has 2 order neurons UMN and LMN
Upper Motor Neuron
housed within the CNS
Lover Motor Neurons
housed within the PNS
refers to brainstem structures
LMN in the corticalspinal tract is a
LMN in the corticalbulbar tract is a
If a Lesion occurs in the anterior tract of the pyramidal system the outcome is not that bad BECAUSE
10-15% of the fibers use that tract
85-90% of fibers in the pyramidal system use the _________ tract and if a lesion occurs the outcome is _______.
In the pyramiday system the _______ is the 1st order neruron.
LMN is the ______ order neuron in the pyramidal system.
__________ _______ is composed of the UMN of the cranial nerves
corticobulbar tract innervate eyes in the
right and left hemispheres
Pyramidal system is comprised of two tracts:
two much muscle contraction with bilateral damage int he upper neurons (damage to UMN)
increased muscle tone (damage to UMN)
(damage to UMN) can cause an increase of exaggerated reflexes and is called__________.
The ________ ________ is when the doctors test an infant to see if when a heel to big toe stroke makes the toes fan out. (this should not present in adults)(damage to UMN)
Positive Babinski refex
- loss of nerve supply that results in decreased sensations
- Impulses to muscles are impared (damage to LMN)
decreased muscle tone, astrophy of muscles are present in ________.
Hypotonia (damage to LMN)
twitching of a single muscle....(damage to LMN)
Twitching of muscle groups are called ________.
No reflexes present
A more crude, primitive pathway is
The Extra Pyramidal System
The ________ structures are where movement tends to be initiated
(basal ganglia) brainstem
striatum is aka
- corpus striatum
- striate nucleus
________ is apart of the forebrain and subcortal (inside rather than outside)
The striatum is the major input station of the _______ ________ system.
The _______ ______ inputs into the striatum.
In ________ the striatum is divided by a _______ _______ tract called the ________ _________ and ________.
- White Matter
- Caudate Nucleus
too much movement
too little movements
when muscles are at rest and there is shaking this is a
This happens when uscles are resisting gravity
________ tremors happen during ________ movements
damage to the basal ganglia brings upon ___________ desiese
- writhing, rhythemic, slow irregular corse movements
- associated with Huntington's desiese
Quick random hyperkinetic movements are_________.
- abnormal excess tone of muscles
- severe craming, writers cramp
A sharp brief muscle contraction that looks similar to a muscle jerk and normally happens after a stroke is called ________.
- Syndrome where the mouth, face, jaw, and tongue
- characterized by repetitive, involuntary, purposeless movements, such as
- grimacing, tongue protrusion, lip smacking, puckering and pursing of
- the lips, and rapid eye blinking
- decreased muscle movement, strength, range of motion, and coordination for speech production
- the "type" depends on where the lesion is...in the cerebellum the result is ataxic
- responsible for coordination
- makes muscles smooth
- maintains posture and balance
- regulates rapid alternating movements
two hemispheres that are divided into 3 lobes
cerebellar system anatomy
In the cerebellar system the _________ lobe is responsible for __________ posture.
In the cerebellar system the _________ lobe is responsible for _________ of _________ movement.
In the cerebellar system the _____________lobe regulates ___________.
The _________ connects two cerebellar hemispheres.
__________ ________ is important stopping points for the connections throughout that is located in the _______ _______.
- Cerebellar nuclei
- White matter
__________ have a specific funtion and serve as a _________ for certain bundles of fibers in the cerebellar system.
________ _________ carry afferent information primarily for the upper part of the body in addition to containg info about balance in the cerebellar system.
in the corticopontocerebellar tract carries info from the cortex about motor movements in order to make the movements smooth.
The passage way for sensory fibers. they come from the lower part of the body through the dentrorubrothalamic trac and ventral spinocerebellar tract.
decomposition of movement
movement that is robot like
inability to gauge distance, speed and/or power of movement
inability to perform rapidly alternating movements
- decreased tone
- flaccid muscle