Posterior Thigh

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Posterior Thigh
2010-02-26 23:23:37
posterior thigh

Includes information about the posterior thigh
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  1. Biceps Femoris
    • Origin (long head): Ischial tuberosity
    • Origin (short head): Posterior shaft of the femur

    Insertion: Head of fibula

    Action: Knee flexion, the long head also does hip extension

    • *Commonly known as the "hamstrings"*
    • *Most effective exercise is prone hamstring curls*
  2. Semitendinosis
    Origin: Ischial tuberosity

    Insertion: Medial tibial plateau (on anterior side)

    Action: Knee flexion

    *Exercises: Squats (work hamstrings eccentrically on the way down and concentrically on the way up)*
  3. Popliteus
    Origin: Lateral femoral condyle

    Insertion: Posterior surface of tibia

    Action: Unlocks "screw-home" mechanism of the knee (when the medial femoral condyle continues to roll forward and slide posteriorly because the medial femoral condyle is wider and longer than the lateral femoral condyle)

    • *Laterally rotates the femur on the tibia
    • *Pulls the lateral meniscus away from the rotating lateral femoral condyle
    • *Once the femur is laterally rotated, the knee is said to be "unlocked" and knee flexion can proceed
  4. The "screw-home" mechanism
    • Locking of the knee
    • Occurs at the end of the range of motion (ROM) of knee extension (femoral condyles roll and glide on the surface of the tibial condyles)
    • "Unlocking" the knee - Reduce tension within the major ligaments of the knee
  5. AD-ductor Longus
    Origin: Pubis

    Insertion: Medial 1/3 of the femur

    Action: Hip AD-duction

    *Synergist of hip flexion*
  6. AD-ductor Magnus
    Origin: Pubis

    Insertion: Medial femoral shaft, AD-ductor tubercle

    Action: Hip AD-duction

    *Features the adductor hiatus that allows blood supply*
  7. AD-ductor Brevis
    Origin: Pubis

    Insertion: Medial proximal shaft of femur

    Action: Hip AD-duction
  8. Pectineus
    Origin: Pubis

    Insertion: Lesser trochanter of the femur (interior)

    Action: Hip AD-duction

    *Rectangular in shape and most superior of the posterior thigh muscles*
  9. Gracillis
    Origin: Pubis

    Insertion: Medial tibial plateau

    Action: Hip AD-duction, Internal hip rotation (because of angle of pull)

    *One of the 3 muscles that insert into the PES ANSERINE*
  10. Pes Anserine Insertion
    • 1. Sartorius
    • 2. Gracillis
    • 3. Semitendinosis
  11. Anatomy of the hip
    • Articulation of the femoral head and acetabulum in a ball-and-socket joint
    • Surrounded by the acetabular labrum (fibrocartilage that adds a little thickness) to deep socket and features the fovea capitis (a small indention where the ligament of the head inserts)
  12. What are the four hip ligaments?
    • Iliofemoral ligament
    • Ischiofemoral ligament
    • Pubofemoral ligament
    • Ligament of the head
  13. Illiofemoral Ligament
    Origin: Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine (AIIS)

    Insertion: Anterior intertrochanteric line

    Action: Resists hip hyperextension (because its located on the anterior aspect)

    *Known as the "Y" ligament*
  14. Ischiofemoral Ligament
    Origin: Ischial spine

    Insertion: Greater trochanter of the femur

    Action: Resists hip hyperflexion (because its on the posterior aspect)
  15. Pubofemoral Ligament
    Origin: Pubis ramus

    Insertion: Intertrochanteric line and lesser trochanter of the femur

    Action: Resists hyper AB-duction

    *People who do side splits have loose pubofemoral ligaments*
  16. Ligament of the Head
    Origin: Posterior/superior rim of acetabulum

    Insertion: Inside in the fovea capitis of the femur

    Action: Holds femoral head in acetabulum
  17. Iliapsoas
    Origin: Anterior bodies of T12 - L5 and iliac fossa

    Insertion: Lesser trochanter of the femur

    Action: Hip flexion

    *Always contracted to maintain center of gravity which is located posterior to the hip joint*
  18. Tensor Fascia Latae
    Origin: Anterior Superior Iliac Spine (ASIS)

    Insertion: Iliotibial band

    Action: Hip flexion, hip AB-duction, and hip internal rotation

    • *Originates on the anterior aspect while inserting more on the posterior aspect*
    • *Contains a lot of vascular supply and innervation that makes it painful to stretch out and loosen up*
    • *Gets very tight in sprinters*
  19. Gluteus Maximus
    Origin: Iliac crest (on posterior/superior aspect) and sacrum

    Insertion: IT band and gluteal tuberosity

    Action: Hip extension and hip external rotation
  20. Gluteus Medius
    Origin: Ilium

    Insertion: Greater trochanter of the femur

    Action: Hip AB-duction and hip external rotation (due to its posterior position)

    • *Becomes VERY weak after any lower extremity injury like knee, ankle, etc.*
    • *Exercises: Lateral squats or lunges, lateral slides
  21. Gluteus Minimus
    Origin: Ilium

    Insertion: Greater trochanter of the femur

    Action: Hip AB-duction and hip external rotation

    *Lies deep to the gluteus medius*
  22. Hip and thigh muscles