Op Management Final

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  1. the ability of a product or service to consistently meet or exceed customer expectations - has not always been foremost in the minds of U.S. business organizations
  2. a dimension of quality - main characteristics of the product/service
  3. a dimension of quality - appearance, feel ,smell, taste
  4. a dimension of quality - extra characteristics
    special features
  5. a dimension of quality - how well product/service conforms to customer expectations
  6. a dimension of quality - risk of injury or harm
  7. a dimension of quality - consistency of performance
  8. a dimension of quality - usefule life of the product/service
  9. a dimension of quality - reputation
    perceived quality
  10. a dimension of quality - complaints, repair, recall
    service after sale
  11. 4 determinants of quality
    design, ease of use, conformance to design, service
  12. 4 consequences of poor quality
    • loss of business
    • liability
    • productivity
    • costs
  13. costs incurred by defective parts/ products or faulty services
    failure costs
  14. costs incurred to fix problems that are detected before the product/service is delivered to the customer
    internal failure costs
  15. all costs incurred to fix problems that are dected after the prouct/servoce is delivered to the customer
    external failure costs
  16. all product and or service inspection costs
    appraisal costs
  17. all TQM training, TQM planning, customer assessment, process control, and quality improvement costs to prevent defects from occurring
    prevention costs
  18. initial effors in quality management was aimed at catching defects
    at the end
  19. during the 50s and 60s quality managment efforts shifted to detecting defects
    during production
  20. modern quality management emphasizes ________- mistakes rather than finding and correcting them
  21. a key contributer to quality management - known for control charts; variance reduction - non random/assignable variation
  22. a key contributer to quality management - known for 14 points; special and common causes of variation
  23. a key contributer to quality management - known for quality is fitness for usel quality trilogy planning, control, improvement
  24. quality trilogy?
    • planning
    • control
    • improvement
  25. a key contributer to quality management - known for quality is a total field, customer - quality
  26. a key contributer to quality management - known for quality is free, zero defects
  27. a key contributer to quality management - known for cause and effect diagrams; circles
  28. a key contributer to quality management - known for taguchi loss fn. - cost of poor quality
  29. annual award given by the us govt to recognize quality acheivements of us compaines - given in business and education
    baldridge award
  30. honors W. Edwards Deming
    Japan's highly coveted award
    main focus on statistical quality control
    The Deming Prize
  31. Organizational excellence
    four categories of awards: award winner, prize winners, finalists, and recognized for excellence
    European Quality
  32. certification is essential for companies wanting to deal with the European Union - require firms to document their quality control systems at every step 14000 pertains to the environmental performance of organizations
    ISO 9000
  33. a philosopy that involves everyone in an organization in a continual effort to improve quality and achieve customer satisfaction - extends to suppliers as well as customers
    total involvement from CEO on down
    Total quality managment
  34. find out what the customer wants
    design product or service that meets or exceeds this
    design a production process that does it right the first time
    keep track of results and use to guide improvements
    extend concepts to suppliers & to distribution
    process of TQM
  35. continual improvement
    competitve benchmarking
    employee empowerment
    team approach
    decisions based on facts
    knowledge of tools
    supplier quality
    tqm champion
    quality at the source
    suppliers are partners
    elements of TQM
  36. philosophy that seeks to make never ending improvements to the process of converting inputs into outputs
    continuous improvement
  37. 4 steps to the PDSA cycle
    • Plan
    • Do
    • Study
    • Act
  38. indentify the problem
    describe the current and revised process
    generate ideas for improving the process
    achieve consensus among team members
    evaluate and monitor results
    problem solving methods
  39. 7 basic quality tools
    • flow charts
    • check sheets
    • histograms
    • pareto analysis
    • scatter diagrams
    • control charts
    • cause and effect diagrams
  40. Necessary to physicallly examine some of the goods
  41. do existing shipments meet predetermined standards
    acceptance sampling
  42. is the process stable --> future output is it acceptable?
    process control
  43. Where to inspect in the process
    • raw materials and purchased parts
    • finished products
    • before a costly operation
    • before an irreversible process
    • before a covering process
  44. special equipment, more favorable testing atmosphere
    centralized lab
  45. quicker decisions, avoidance of other extraneous factors
    on site
  46. characteristics which are present or not present - counted
  47. characteristics which are present in varying degrees - measured
  48. form of inspection applied to lots or batches of items before or after a process to judge conformance with predetermined standards
    acceptance sampling
  49. plans that specify lot size, sample size, number of samples, and acceptance/ rejection criteria - single sampling, double sampling, multiple sampling
    sampling plans
  50. one random sample is drawn from the lot nd every item in sample is examined
    single plan
  51. take a second sample if the first sameple is inconclusive
    double plan
  52. same logic as double plan except addional samples are drawn until you clearly fall into either the acceptance or rejection category
    multiple plan
  53. important feature of this is how well it discriminates between lots of high quality and lots of low quality
    sampling plan
  54. shows the probability that use of the sampling plan will result in lots with various fraction defectives being accepted
    Operating Characteristic Curve
  55. the percentage level of defects at which consumers are willing to accept lots a good
    acceptable quality level
  56. the upper limit on the percentage of defects that a consumer is willing to accept
    lot tolerance percent defective
  57. the probability that a lot containing defectives exceeding the ltpd will be accepted
    consumer's risk or beta
  58. the probability that a lot containing the acceptable quality level will be rejected
    producer's risk - alpha
  59. periodic samples of process output are taken and evaluated
    control chart
  60. natural variations in the output of a process, created by countless minor factors. Inherent
    random variations
  61. a variation whose source can be idntified and eliminated
    assignable (nonrandom) variation
  62. graphical tools to differentiate between random and non random output - centerline(avg), ucl and lcl
    control chars
  63. Control charts for means reflect the _____ ______ of a process while control charts for ranges reflect _____ _____.
    • central tendancy
    • process dispersion
  64. control chart used to monitor t
  65. proportion of defectives in a process
    p chart
  66. control chart used to monitor the number of defects per unit
    c chart
  67. determining whether a machine or process is capable of producing acceptable output
    process capability
  68. determining whether the inherent variability of the process output falls within the acceptable range of variability allowed by the design specifications
    capability analysis
  69. a process is capable if it is greater than or equal to
  70. a sequence of observations with a certain characteristic, followed by one or more observations with a different characteristic
    run tests
  71. 5 types of inventories
    • raw materials
    • work in progress
    • finished goods
    • replacement parts, tools, & supplies
    • goods in transit to warehouses or customers
  72. to meet anticipated demand
    smooth production requirements
    decouple components of the production distribution
    protect against stock outs
    take advantage of order cycles
    help hedge against price increaces or take advantage of discounts
    permit operations
    funtions of inventory
  73. inventory counting system
    forecast of demand
    knowledge of lead times and variability
    estimate of inventory costs
    classification system for inventory items
    requirements for effective inventory management
  74. fundamental inventory issues
    • how much to order
    • when to place an order
  75. order quantity is constant but the time interval between orders can vary
    inventories are monitored and when they reach a designated level, an order is placed for Q units
    perpetual accounting system required
    fixed order quantity system
  76. inventories are examined at fixed intervals and orders are plaved for varying amounts to bring inventories bavk up to certain predetermined levels
    periodic accounting system
    more succeptible to stockouts
    fixed order interval system
  77. cost to carry an item in inventory for a length of time
    carrying costs
  78. costs associated with ordering and reveiving intventory.
    ordering costs
  79. costs resulting from demand exceeding the supply on hand
    shortage costs
  80. a schedule of the quantity of each material required in each time period in the planning horizon - computer based system that is both an inventory and scheduling tool - material control is VITAL
    materials requirement planning
  81. improve customer service
    reduce inventory investment
    improve plant operating efficiency
    ojbectives of mrp
  82. one of three primary inputs in mrp - states which end items are to be produced when hese are needed and in what quantities.
    master production scedule
  83. the sume of the lead times that sequential phases of a process require from ordering of parts or raw materials to completion of final assembly
    cumulative lead time
  84. series of time intervals during which order changes are allowed or restricted
    time fences
  85. the process of determining short range capacity requirements
    capacity requirements planning
  86. department or work center reports that compare known and expected future capacity requirements with projected capacity availability
    load reports
  87. one of the three primary inputs of MRP a listing of all of the raw materials, parts, subassemblies, and assemblies needed to produce one unit of a product
    bill of materials
  88. visual depiction of the requirements in a bill of materials where all components are listed by levels
    product structure tree
  89. a complete record of each material held in inveorynt
    inventory status file
  90. schedule indicating the amount and timing of future orders
    planned orders
  91. authorization for the execution of planned orders
    order releases
  92. revisions of due dates or order quantities or cancellations of orders
  93. performance control reports
    planning reports
    exception reports
    MRP secondary reports
  94. low levels of in process inventories
    ability to track material requirements
    ability to evaluate capacity requirements
    means of allocating production time
    Benefits of MRP
  95. computer and necessary software
    accurate and up to date master schedules, BOM, and inventory records
    integrity of data
    requirements of MRP
  96. expanded MRP with an emphasis placed on integration
    MRP II
  97. expanded effort to integrate standardized record keeping that will permit information sharing maong different areas of an org in order to manage the sstem more effectively
    Enterprise Respource Planning
  98. movement of goods during production and deliveries from suppliers are carefully timed so that at each step of the process the next batch arrives for processing just as the preceding batch is completed
  99. unique one time operations designed to accomplish a specific set of objectives in a limited time frame
  100. an effort that is required to complete a part of the project
  101. an activity that has no room for schedule slippage; if it slips the entire project completion will slip
    critical activity
  102. a beginning completion point or milestone accomplishment within the project
  103. the amount of time that an activity or group of activities can slip without causing a delay in the completion of the project
  104. developed in 1950s - DuPont - designed for unique complex projects with many activities where ontime completion is imperative
    critical path method
  105. earliest that an activity can start from the beginning of the project
    earliest start
  106. earliest that an activity can finish from the beginning of the project
    earliest finish
  107. latest that an activity can start from the beginning of the project without causing a delay in the completion of the project
    latest start
  108. latest that an activity can finish from the beginning of the project without causing a delay in the completion of the project
    latest finish
  109. differs from CPM only in the activity time estimate -three time estimates are made( pesimistic, most likely, optimistic) make statements about path completion time
    program evaluation and review technique
  110. might be possible to reduce the length of a project bby injecting addition resources
    if both sources of cost are available, identify the plan which will minimize the sum of the indirect and direct project costs
  111. do not crash non critical activities
    crash only critical activities
    crash activities with the lowest crashing cost per unit of time
    parallel critical paths must both be compressed
    crash as long as the cost to crash is less than the benefit
    general crashing rules
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Op Management Final
2011-05-01 21:22:55
Op Management Final

Op Management Final
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