Chapter 22

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JChristie20
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8303
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Chapter 22
Updated:
2010-02-26 23:25:19
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Reproductive System
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Holes Human Anatomy and Physiology
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  1. What are the primary organs of the male reproductive
    system?
    • two testes
    • accessory sex organs(internal and external reproductive organs)
  2. Where are the sperm cells formed?
    testes
  3. cell division that halves the genetic material, resulting in egg and sperm cells
    meiosis
  4. How many chromosomes are in a sperm cell?
    23
  5. Name the structures of the sperm cell.
    flattened head, cylindrical midpiece and an elongated tail
  6. What is contained in the acrosome?
    hyaluronidase, aid the sperm cell in penetrating
  7. produce sperm cells
    seminiferous tubules
  8. produce and secrete male sex hormones
    interstitial cells
  9. promotes sperm cell maturation, stores sperm cells, conveys sperm cells to ductus deferens
    epididymis
  10. conveys sperm cells to ejaculatory duct
    ductus deferens
  11. secretes an alkaline fluid that helps neutralize the acidic components of semen and enhances sperm cell motillity
    prostate gland
  12. secretes an alkaline fluid containing nutrients and prostanglandins that helps neutralize the acidic components of semen
    seminal vesicle
  13. secretes fluid that lubricates end of the penis
    bulbourethral gland
  14. encloses, protects, and regulates temperature of testes
    scrotum
  15. conveys urine and semen to outside of body; richly supplied with sensory nerve endings associated with feelings of pleasure
    penis
  16. What hormones are involved in the male reproductive
    system?
    • androgens
    • testosterone
    • gonadotropins
  17. What hormone is the most abundant androgen?
    testosterone
  18. Testosterone-secreting cell in the interstitial area, between the seminiferous tubules, in the testis.
    Leydig cells
  19. stimulates the development of the male reproductive organs and causes the testes to decend; resposible for the development and maintenance of male seconday sex charateristics
    testosterone
  20. What temperature is approximately maintained in the
    testes for sperm?
    93.6
  21. What happens if the testes do not descend?
    cryptoorchidism
    they will not produce sperm cells because of the temperature, the male is infertile
  22. differentiation of an egg cell; beginning at puberty
    oogenesis
  23. when a primary oocyte divides, the cytoplasm is distributed unequally; the resulting larger cell is called _______?
    secondary oocyte
  24. when a primary oocyte divides, the cytoplasm is distributed unequally; the resulting smaller cell is called _______?
    first polar body
  25. What happens to polar bodies during fertilization?
    they begin to degenerate 15 hours post fertilization
  26. the primary oocyte enlarges, the follicular cell proliferate, and a fluid fulled cavity appears and produces a secondary follicle
    follicle maturation
  27. What causes ovulation?
    • release of LH from the anterior pituitary gland
    • (luetinizing hormone)
  28. produces oocytes and female sex hormores
    ovary
  29. conveys secondary oocyte toward uterus; site of fertilization; conveys developing embryo to uterus
    uterine tube
  30. protects and sustains embryo during pregnancy
    uterus
  31. conveys uterine secretions to outside of body; provides open channel for offspring during child birth
    vagina
  32. enclose and protect other external reproductive organs
    labia majora
  33. form margina of vestibule; protect openings of vagina and urethra
    labia minora
  34. produces feelings of pleasure during sexual stimulation due to abundant sensory nerve endings in glans
    clitoris
  35. space between lania minora that contains vaginal and urethral openings
    vestibule
  36. secrete fluid that moistens and lubricates the vestibule
    vestibular glands
  37. the infundibulum bears a number of irregular, branched extensions called _________?
    fimbriae
  38. inner mucosal layer, is covered with columnar epithelium and contains abundant tubular glands
    endometrium
  39. thick, middle, muscular layer, consists largely of bundles of smooth muscle fibers in longitudinal, circular and spiral patterns and is interlaced with connective tissues
    myometrium
  40. consists of an outer serosal layer, which covers the body of the uterus and part of the cervix
    perimetrium
  41. neck of the uterus; tubular part extends downward into the upper part of the vagina
    cervix
  42. responsible for the development and maintenance of most female secondary sex characteristics
    estrogen
  43. prepares the uterus for pregnancy
    progesterone
  44. What are the major events in a menstrual cycle?
    regularly recurrin changes in the uterine lining culminating in menstrual flow
  45. structure that forms from the rupturedovarian follicle and secretes female hormones
    corpus luteum
  46. cessation of the female reproductive system
    menopause
  47. composed of 15 to 20 irregualry shaped lobes. each lobe contains glands, drained by alveolar ducts
    mammary gland
  48. hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the production of milk in the mammary glands
    prolactin
  49. Where is milk stored in the mammary gland?
    the milk is stored in the alveolies and small milk ducts
  50. withdrawal of the penis from the vagina before ejaculation; some semen may be expelled from the penis before ejaculation
    coitus interruptus
  51. abstinence from sexual intercorse two days before andone day after ovulation
    rhythm method
  52. males and females can use condoms; females use diaphragms and cervical caps
    mechanical barriers
  53. spermicical film, sponges, suppositories, foams and gels
    chemical barriers
  54. flexible ring inserted into the vagina, a plastic patch, or pill can deliver estrogen and progestin to prevent pregnancy
    combined hormone contraceptives
  55. intramuscular injection with medroxyprogesterone acetate every three months prevents pregnancy
    injectable contraceptives
  56. solid object inserted into the uterine cavity
    intrauterine devices
  57. vasectomy is performed in males
    tubal ligation is performed in females
    surgical methods
  58. Which substances are contained in oral contraceptives?
    estrogen and progestin
  59. human immunodeficiency virus
    acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIDS
  60. chlamydia trachomatis bacteria
    chlamydia infection
  61. herpes simplex 2 virus
    genital herpes
  62. human papilloma virus
    genital warts
  63. neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria
    gonorrhea
  64. treponema pallidum bacteria
    syphillis

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