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policies designed to protect people against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by govt officials/individuals
Name 5 key types of discrimination in America.
- sexual orientation
The fight for equality involves what three aspects.
- 1. philosophically, defining the term equality
- 2. constitutionally, interpreting laws
- 3. politically, it involves power
Americans believe in what 3 things pertaining to civil rights.
- 1. equal rights
- 2. equality of opportunity
- 3. no emphasis on equal results/equal rewards
Equal Protection of the Laws
part of the 14th amendment emphasizing that the laws must provide equivalent protection to all people
Name and describe the 3 standards of review used by the Supreme Court in terms of civil rights.
- 1. reasonable - (age, wealth, etc.) bear a rational relationship to some legitimate governmental purpose
- 2. racial & ethnic classifications are inherently suspect
- 3. classifications based on gender fit somewhere between these two extremes
Name and describe the 3 eras of racial equality.
- 1. era of slavery: colonization - end of Civil War in 1865
- 2. era of reconstruction/resegregation: 1865 - 1953
- 3. era of civil rights: 1954 - present
Scott v Sandford
court decision ruling that an escaped slave in a free state enjoyed no rights as a citizen; Congress could not ban slavery in territories
Jim Crow Laws
What two entities put civil rights' goals on the nation's policy agenda?
- the courts
- the nat'l conscience
Civil Rights Act of 1964
made racial discrimination against any group in hotels/motels/restaurants illegal; forbade job discrimination
legal right to vote
Name the five amendments that expanded suffrage.
- 15th: African American suffrage
- 19th: women's suffrage
- 26th: 18-21 year old suffrage
- 22nd: Washington DC residents suffrage
- 24th: poll taxes eliminated
Name three methods used for keeping African Americans from voting historically.
- literacy tests
- poll taxes
- White primary
Voting Rights Act of 1965
prohibited any govt from using voting procedures that denied a person the vote on the basis of race/color and abolished the use of literacy requirements for anyone who had completed the 6th grade
kept women mostly in the home to protect the family and the country's moral fabrics
Equal Rights Amendment
equality of rights cannot be abridged on account of sex
issue raised when women who hold traditionally female jobs are paid less than men for working at jobs requiring comparable skills
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
requires employers and public facilities to make reasonable accommodations for people with disabilities and prohibits discrimination against these individuals in employment
efforts to bring about increased employment, promotion, or admission for members of previously disadvantaged groups
Describe the specifications of the legality of affirmative action.
Affirmative action is constitutional as long as it does not set aside a certain quota/number of spaces available only to minority members
What are 2 reasons opponents are against affirmative action?
- they believe that is cannot rectify past injustices
- they believe merit is the only basis for determining benefits