Digestion and Absorption
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process by which food is broken down into absorption.
untake of nutrients
What are the 2 major functions of GI tract
1. transfer of nutrients into circulation
2. protects the body from harmful ingested material
What are the 5 steps of transfer of nutrients into circulation
1. reductions of particle size leading to an increase of surface material.
2. conversion of food to an isotonic aqueis solution.
3. solubilization (emulsification) of hydrophobic lipids
4. enzomatic digestion of large molecules to small fragments
5. absorbtion of small molecules of digestion across intestinal cell.
isotonic is a solution contaning?
same # of non-penetrating particles, cells will neither decrease
-will not shrink or swell.
digestion begins in?
mouth- mechanics break down and making saliva
-things start to absorb in mouth under tongue
food that has been swolloed
once food is swallowed.
90% absorbtion occurs
absorbs water that is being reabsorbed
chiseled edes that cut
Canines (cuspids) have?
pointed crowns that tear.
Premolars (bicuspids) and molars have?
ridged surfaces that crush and grind
way muscular contraction of gastro tract pushes things along.
Strongest muscles around stomach are?
-goal is to produce a mixture of use of them.
prevents air from getting into esophageal
between esophages and stomach prevent back juice in esophagest.
seperates the acidic from nutral enviroments it always only small amount of chyme
between small and large intest. prevents material from coming back in.
anti acids are?
-form of calcium
Acid reducer are?
-reduce amount of stomach acid
Chronic inflammation and damage of the esophages
What are the 5 organs that produce digestion secretion?
lubricationg the food
start to break down large stach molecules to mono and disacarides.
lipid enzyme involved with tryglycerides with short and mediam chain fatty acids.
What makes up the gasteric juice?
hydrochloric Acid (HCl)
synthesis of hormones
-glucagon and insolin
sythesis and sucreation of digestion enzyme.
97-99% water lubricate to get mixture.
bicarbonate is a?
buffer acid that is coming out of stomach
-stops pepcid from functioning
Zymogens is an active form of?
dont want active till in form of food.
primary amylase that take carbons apart.
gong to cut last a.a. off.
Bile essential for fat digestion (3)
1. ammolsification of fat
2. contains bycarbonate to neutrilies acid
3. route of cholesterial excretion as well as bile acid
primary function of colon is?
Small intestine is the?
crypt is a?
tubular gland that lies between intestinel bili and screts intesten juices
new cells form in?
constently changing and moving
what are the 3 absorption of nutrients?
Simple diffusion is?
things that can move simply in more right through (small lipids and water)
Faciliated diffusion is?
required a carrier. --> changes shape to go into cell. (vitamins)
Active Transport requires?
going agenst concentration gradient. (glucose and a.a.)
What is the thermic affect of food?
contraction of muscles
10% of energy is used to?
Large fat products go to?
lympatic system (do not go to liver first) go to rest of body.
Cells further up better absorbing things?
Cells further down better absorbing things?
The liver is?
everything your body is trying to get out of system.
Digestion and Absorption