Digestion and Absorption

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Author:
alowrie
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83046
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Digestion and Absorption
Updated:
2011-05-01 17:37:07
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digestion
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  1. Digestion is?
    process by which food is broken down into absorption.
  2. absorption is?
    untake of nutrients
  3. What are the 2 major functions of GI tract
    • 1. transfer of nutrients into circulation
    • 2. protects the body from harmful ingested material
  4. What are the 5 steps of transfer of nutrients into circulation
    • 1. reductions of particle size leading to an increase of surface material.
    • 2. conversion of food to an isotonic aqueis solution.
    • 3. solubilization (emulsification) of hydrophobic lipids
    • 4. enzomatic digestion of large molecules to small fragments
    • 5. absorbtion of small molecules of digestion across intestinal cell.
  5. isotonic is a solution contaning?
    • same # of non-penetrating particles, cells will neither decrease
    • -will not shrink or swell.
  6. digestion begins in?
    • mouth- mechanics break down and making saliva
    • -things start to absorb in mouth under tongue
  7. bolis is?
    food that has been swolloed
  8. chyme is?
    once food is swallowed.
  9. Small intestint?
    90% absorbtion occurs
  10. Colen?
    absorbs water that is being reabsorbed
  11. incisors have?
    chiseled edes that cut
  12. Canines (cuspids) have?
    pointed crowns that tear.
  13. Premolars (bicuspids) and molars have?
    ridged surfaces that crush and grind
  14. Peristalsis?
    way muscular contraction of gastro tract pushes things along.
  15. Strongest muscles around stomach are?
    • 1. circular
    • 2. longitunital
    • 3. diagonal
    • -goal is to produce a mixture of use of them.
  16. upper esophageal?
    prevents air from getting into esophageal
  17. lower esophageal?
    between esophages and stomach prevent back juice in esophagest.
  18. pyloric?
    seperates the acidic from nutral enviroments it always only small amount of chyme
  19. Ilealcecal?
    between small and large intest. prevents material from coming back in.
  20. anti acids are?
    • tums
    • rolex
    • -form of calcium
  21. Acid reducer are?
    • pepcid
    • -reduce amount of stomach acid
  22. Barrett's is?
    Chronic inflammation and damage of the esophages
  23. What are the 5 organs that produce digestion secretion?
    • salivary glands
    • stomach
    • pancrees
    • liver (gallbladder)
    • small intestint
  24. Saliva is?
    • 99.5% water
    • lubricationg the food
  25. Salivary amylase?
    start to break down large stach molecules to mono and disacarides.
  26. lingual lipase?
    lipid enzyme involved with tryglycerides with short and mediam chain fatty acids.
  27. What makes up the gasteric juice?
    • hydrochloric Acid (HCl)
    • pepsinogen-->pepsin
    • mucus`
  28. Endocrine?
    • synthesis of hormones
    • -glucagon and insolin
  29. Exocrine?
    sythesis and sucreation of digestion enzyme.
  30. Pancreatic juice?
    97-99% water lubricate to get mixture.
  31. bicarbonate is a?
    • buffer acid that is coming out of stomach
    • -stops pepcid from functioning
  32. Zymogens is an active form of?
    enzymes

    dont want active till in form of food.
  33. alpha amylase?
    primary amylase that take carbons apart.
  34. exopeptidases?
    gong to cut last a.a. off.
  35. Liver produces?
    bile
  36. Bile contains?
    • no enzymes
    • fat digestion
  37. Bile essential for fat digestion (3)
    • 1. ammolsification of fat
    • 2. contains bycarbonate to neutrilies acid
    • 3. route of cholesterial excretion as well as bile acid
  38. primary function of colon is?
    reabsorb water
  39. Small intestine is the?
    primary absorber
  40. crypt is a?
    tubular gland that lies between intestinel bili and screts intesten juices
  41. new cells form in?
    • 3-5 days
    • constently changing and moving
  42. what are the 3 absorption of nutrients?
    • simple diffusion
    • facilitated diffusion
    • active transport
  43. Simple diffusion is?
    things that can move simply in more right through (small lipids and water)
  44. Faciliated diffusion is?
    required a carrier. --> changes shape to go into cell. (vitamins)
  45. Active Transport requires?
    • energy
    • going agenst concentration gradient. (glucose and a.a.)
  46. What is the thermic affect of food?
    • Release enzymes
    • contraction of muscles
    • absorb nutrients
  47. 10% of energy is used to?
    digest food.
  48. Large fat products go to?
    lympatic system (do not go to liver first) go to rest of body.
  49. Cells further up better absorbing things?
    quicker
  50. Cells further down better absorbing things?
    slowely
  51. The liver is?
    • protective organ
    • everything your body is trying to get out of system.

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