What do Fluoride, Chlorine, and Hypochlorite do? What is the PPM of Fluoride?
Inhibit proteins. ~1000ppm. (Toothpaste).
What is the PPM of chlorine? Where is it used?
1ppm. Treating drinking water.
What is hypochlorite the active ingredient in?
Bleach (5% hypochlorite).
What do alcohols do?
Inhibit proteins and dissolve lipids.
What is Isoproponal used for? Ethanol?
Common household disinfectant. Injection prep (70%).
What do heavy metals (copper) do?
What has copper sulfate been used for?
Prevent algal growth in pools and fungal growth on grapes.
What does formaldehyde do?
What do quats do? What are they the active ingredient in?
Disrupts cell membranes. Lysol, Fantastik.
What do Hydrogen Peroxide and Benzoyl Peroxide do?
Cause various oxidation reactions. (BP is in topical acne medications).
What is transcription?
RNA is made using the information from DNA.
What is translation?
Proteins are made using the information from RNA.
What is genetic recombination?
Segments of DNA are transferred from one chromosome to another.
What does DNA Replication occur?
In the nucleoid.
What does DNA Helicase do?
Uncoils DNA helix and seperates the two strands.
What does DNA polymerase do?
Lays down the new nucleotides and forms the new strands of DNA.
What does transcription occur?
In the cytoplasm of bacteria, or nucleus of eukaryotes.
What is the enzyme responsible for bacterial transcription?
How does RNA polymerase make a protein?
Binds the DNA at the promoter, then seperates the two strands of DNA and beings reading it on one strand, it attaches RNA nucleotides according to the DNA and then RNA molecule lengthens until it hits a terminator.
Do bacterial RNA contain introns?
What are introns?
Segments of RNA that must be removed in order to produce the proper protein later during translation.
What does translation occur?
Cytoplasm in both bacteria and eukaryotes.
What is mRNA?
Messenger RNA - contains the DNA message and is the piece of RNA that the ribosome reads.
What is tRNA?
Transfer RNA - delivers the new amino acids to the ribosome.
What is rRNA?
Ribosomal RNA - forms part of the ribosome.
What are two mutagens?
Radiation and Chemicals.
How does Radiation hurt DNA?
Changes the shape (thymine dimers).
What are aflatoxins produced by?
Aspergillus flavus, a common environmental mold that often grows on crops.
The most carinogenic naturally-produced substances known.
A test to determine if a chemical is a mutagen.
The Ames Test.
What is genetic recombination?
The exchange of DNA between two chromosomes.
What is transformation?
The uptake of naked DNA from the environment.
What is Conjugation?
Direct transfer of DNA from one cell to another.
What is Transduction?
The transfer of DNA from one bacterial cell to another by a bacteriophage.
How do gram-negative bacteria achieve conjugation?
They use their pilus to attach to other bacteria and reel them in.
DNA with foreign material iserted into it.
rDNA (recombinant DNA).
What is the most commonly engineered bacterium?
What is the most commonly engineered eukaryotic organism?
What is PCR?
Process that makes multiple copies of a piece of DNA (billions) within a few hours.
What is the heat-stble DNA polymerase used in PCR?
Taq polymerase from the thermophilic bacterium Thermus aquaticus.
How do labs make transformation easier?
Adding detergents make the cell membrane more porous.
What is Agrobacterium tumefaciens?
A plant pathogen (causes gall) that has the ability to inject DNA into plant cells.
What does the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae include?
E. coli, Salmonella, Proteus, and other gram-negative intestinal bacteria.
How many phyla can the domain Bacteria be divided into?
What are the two most well-known phyla of Bacteria?
Proteobacteria and Firmicutes.
Most gram-negative bacteria are in what phylum?
Most gram-positive bacteria are in what phylum?
How do fungi reproduce?
What are fungal infections called?
What is an example of a fungal infection?
A yeast infection.
What are fungal toxins called?
Where can a virus get its envelope from?
The membrane of the host cell it escaped.
Why are viruse obligate intracellular parasites?
They can only reproduce inside the cells of a living host.
How can the cells a virus can infect be determined?
The specific receptors on the surface of the cell. The receptor is usually a protein or polysaccharide
The penetration of host defenses and colonization by a pathogen.
A state of unhealth, loss of homeostasis, or the presence of symptoms.
The number of new cases reported during a period of time.
The total number of cases during a period of time.
What are the most common nosocomial infections?
Gram-positive cocci (Staphylococcus) followed by gram-negative rods (E. coli, Psuedomonas).
Risk of infection by what bacteria is increased during antibiotic therapy?
Clostridium difficile and Candida albicans.
In order to cause disease what must a microbe do?
Be capable of causing disease, must be transmitted to the host, and the host must be susceptible.
What do portals of entry include?
Mucous membranes, and the skin.
What are nearly all bacterial toxins?
Which system in the Immune System never changes throughout life?
What is the major protein of skin?
What is the pH of the skin?
3-5 due to fatty acids in sebum as well as acids by bacteria on our skin.
What is the pH of the stomach?
What are transferrins?
Iron-binding proteins in the blood, saliva, milk, and tears. We remove important nutrients for microbes by preventing iron from floating free in our fluids.
Our normal microbiota contribute to Innate Immunity when it does what?
Crowd out pathogens, Produce acids.
The most common genus in the colon.
Abundantly found in the intestine of animals.
The most common species of the skin.
A major contributor to the acidity of the skin.
Major contributor to foot and body odor.
Common member of the normal microbiota and among the first colonizers of the colon after we're born.
The most common of the leukocytes.
The first responders to infection and show in the largest numbers.
Contain vesicles of histamine.
How are Basophils important in anaphalytic shock?
They release histamine when stimulated and capillaries expand and become leaky all over the body, the loss of fluid from blood stream results in shock.
Important in the defense against parasitic worms.
How do Eosinophils kill helminths?
Releasing toxins and ROS.
Arrive second to sites of infection and act as the clean-up crew.
How do Natural Killer Cells kill infected cells.
When they recognize an infected cell they release perforin which creates holes in the cell membrane, and granzymes which enter the cells and induce apoptosis.
Any chemical that stimulates or regulates immune cells.
Immune cells that live under the skin and mucous membranes.
What is the process of inflammation?
Damaged mast cells release histamine and other chemicals.
What is pus?
A creamy mix of fluids that have leaked from the bloodstream and the immune cells that have migrated to the infected area.
Why are B and T Cells called lymphocytes?
They spend most of their time in the lymph system (lymph nodes).
What are lymph nodes?
Enlarged pockets that occur along the vessels of the lymph system.
What are Helper T Cells also known as?
Ringleader of the immune system.
Helper T Cells.
Most B Cells become what? What do the rest become?
Plasma cells, Memory cells.
Proteins produced by plasma cell in response to an antigen.
What is another term for antibody?
Any molecule that stimulates the production of antibodies.
What are antigens usually?
Proteins or Polysaccharides on the surface of a pathogen.
What are Cytotoxic T Cells also called?
Provided by antibodies against extracellular pathogens.
Provided by Cytotoxic T Cells against intracellular pathogens.
How does HIV infect CD4 cells?
A protein in the envelope (gp120) attaches to the CD4 on Helper T cells.
What number does the Helper T Cell have to be at to be diagnosed with AIDS? What is the normal level of Helper T Cells?
What antibiotics inhibit peptidoglycan synthesis?
Penicillin (all of the -cillins), Bacitracin.
What antibiotics inhibit protein synthesis?
Tetracycline (all the -cyclines), Neomycin, Erythromycin.
What antibiotics inhibit nutrient synthesis?
Trimethroprim and Sulfamethoxazole (all sulfa drugs) (inhibit folic acid synthesis)
What antibiotics injure cell membrane?
Polymyxin B, Clotrimazole, and Miconazole.
What is Triple Antibiotic Ointment?
Bacitracin, Neomycin, and Polymyxin B.
The original antibiotic.
Penicillin. Penicillium chrysogenum.
What are the antifungal antibiotics and how do they work?
Clotrimazole and Miconazole. Inhibit ergosterol synthesis, prescribed for yeast infections, athlete's foot, jock itch.