Micro Final

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  1. What do microorganims include?
    • Algae
    • Archaea
    • Bacteria
    • Fungi
    • Helminths
    • Protozoa
    • Viruses
  2. What is the role of most microbes on Earth?
  3. What do environmental microbes do? What are they called?
    Decompose organic wastes and produce oxygen. Saprophytes.
  4. Where do saprophytes get their nutrients?
    From dead and decaying material.
  5. What do photosynthetic microbes do? What do these include?
    Produce oxygen. Algae and photosynthetic bacteria.
  6. How many microbes on Earth cause disease?
    Relatively few.
  7. What are the three domains?
    Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya.
  8. What two domains are prokaryotic? What domain is eukaryotic?
    Archaea/Bacteria, Eukarya.
  9. Archaea lack what in their cell walls?
  10. What do Fungi include?
    Yeasts, molds, and mushrooms.
  11. Algae are what two things?
    Protists and Photosynthetic.
  12. What are Protozoa?
  13. What do Helminths get their nutrients?
    They are parasites, so they get their nutrients from living hosts.
  14. Why are viruses considering "not living"?
    They have no cells, no metabolism, and no reproduction.
  15. What does Immersion Oil do?
    Keeps the light from refracting.
  16. What is the color of gram-positive bacteria under a microscope? Gram-negative?
    Purple. Red.
  17. Which bacteria contain a thick peptidoglycan layer around their cell membrane?
  18. What size are cocci cells?
    1 micrometer in diameter.
  19. What is the typical length of a bacilli cell?
    2-8 micrometers.
  20. What does the prefix "strepto" indicate?
  21. What is a capsule or slime layer usually composed of?
  22. What is an example of microbe that has a capsule or slime layer?
  23. What are Fimbriae and Pili made of?
    Chains of the protein pilin.
  24. What bacteria usually have Fimbriae or Pili?
  25. What is an example of bacteria with Fimbriae or Pili?
    Neisseria, and E. coli.
  26. What is Flagella made of? What is this substance also called?
    Flagellin, a protein also called H Antigen.
  27. What is the movement of flagella?
    Propeller rotations.
  28. What is an example of a bacteria with Flagella?
  29. In E. coli O157:H7, what does the H7 indicate?
    A strain of the bacteria with a specific variation of the H antigen in the flagella.
  30. What is the structure of peptidoglycan?
    A scaffolding of polysaccharides linked by short polypeptides.
  31. What are the two monosaccharides that alternate in peptidoglycan?
    N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acd (NAG and NAM).
  32. What do Lysozyme and Penicillin damage?
    Peptidoglycan. Lysozyme breaks it down, Penicillin inhibits its formation.
  33. How many layers of peptidoglycan does a gram-positive bacteria wall have?
  34. Gram-positive are generally more resistant to what?
    Physical damage.
  35. What is the outer membrane of a gram-negative bacteria?
    Phospholipid bilayer, like the cell membrane.
  36. What does the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria contain different from a regular cell membrane?
    Lipopolysaccharides and Porins.
  37. What is LPS composed of?
    O-Polysaccharide and a lipid part.
  38. What is Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) also called?
  39. What is shock?
    A life-threatening drop in blood pressure.
  40. What are gram-negative bacteria generally more resistant to?
  41. What does the cell wall of Mycobacterium contain?
    Mycolic acid.
  42. What do Eukaryotic cell walls lack?
    Peptidoglycan (if they even have a cell wall).
  43. What do algal cell walls contain?
  44. What do fungal cell walls contain?
  45. Where does the hydrophobic part of the cell membrane point?
    Toward the inside, to the center.
  46. What does the hyprophilic part of the cell membrane point?
    Outside, remaining in contact with water.
  47. What is the sterol of Eukaryotic cell membranes? Fungal?
    Cholesterol. Ergosterol.
  48. Do bacterial cell membranes have sterols?
  49. Since prokaryotic cells do not have membrane-bound organelles, what do they do with their cell membrane?
    Form folds where specialized functions can take place.
  50. Where are folds in a cell membrane common? What is an example?
    Photosynthetic bacteria. Thylakoids in cyanobacteria.
  51. Why are cell membranes selectively permeable?
    Due to the hydrophobic core of the membrane.
  52. Why does no endocytosis/exocytosis occur in prokaryotic cells?
    They do not have membrane bound organelles, so they do not make the vesicles necessary for the processes.
  53. What does the Cytoplasm lack?
    Nucleus, Membrane-Bound organelles, and a Cytoskeleton.
  54. What is a bacterial chromosome like? Eukaryotic chromosome?
    Single, circular. Multiple, linear.
  55. What does the Chromosome lack?
  56. The area the DNA occupies in the cell.
  57. What do plasmids carry?
    Genes for toxins and various resistances.
  58. What is the size of a bacterial ribosome compared to a eukaryotic ribosome?
    70s versus 80s.
  59. What is an endospore?
    A survival structure, dormant mini-cells wrapped by a thick protein coat.
  60. What are some bacterial genera that produce endospores?
    Bacillus and Clostridium.
  61. Why are endospores usually produced?
    Lack of nutrients.
  62. What are the two things that contribute to the resistance of endospores?
    Thick protein coat and the lack of water.
  63. What are responsible for most metabolic reactions?
  64. What does a reaction take place in an enzyme?
    Active site.
  65. What is Cellular Respiration?
    A method of ATP production that includes Glycolysis, the Krebs Cycle, and Oxidative Phosphorylation.
  66. What does Glycolysis do?
    Converts molecules of glucose into 2 molecules of Pyruvate.
  67. What is formed during Glycolysis?
    2 Pyruvate, 2 NADH, and 2 ATP.
  68. What does the Krebs Cycle do?
    Converts 2 molecules of pyruvate to 6 molecules of carbon dioxide.
  69. Where does the Krebs Cycle occur?
    Cytoplasm (mitochondria of eukaryotic cells).
  70. Where does Glycolysis occur?
  71. What does the Krebs Cycle produce?
    8 NADH, 2 FADH2, and 2 ATP.
  72. What is Oxidative Phosphorylation?
    A series of reactions that include an electron transport chain and a process called chemiosmosis.
  73. Where does Oxidative Phosphorylation occur?
    Along the cell membrane (the mitochondria in eukaryotic cells).
  74. What is the final electron acceptor?
  75. How many ATP can be produced in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
    Up to 34.
  76. What bacteria is used to make cheese?
  77. Where does photosynthesis occur in bacteria? Plants/Algae?
    Cell membrane. Chloroplasts.
  78. What are the two majr groups of photosynthetic bacteria?
    Cyanobacteria and Green and Purple bacteria.
  79. Where are cyanobacteria found?
    Wherever sunlight is available and it is moist (water, plants, soil).
  80. Where are green and purple bacteria found?
    They are sensitive to oxygen, so usually in bodies of water close enough to sunlight but far enough away from oxygen.
  81. What organisms are oxygenic?
    Plants, Algae, and Cyanobacteria.
  82. What organisms are anoxygenic?
    Green and Purple bacteria.
  83. Explain Photoautotrophs. Name some.
    Photosynthetic. Fix carbon dioxide for their carbon. Plants, Algae, and Cyanobacteria.
  84. Explain Chemoheterotrophs. Name some.
    Depend on organic compounds produced by other organisms for both energy and carbon. All animals, fungi, protozoa, and most bacteria.
  85. All pathogenic and food spoilage bacteria fit into what metabolic group?
  86. What is the optimum temperature for Psychrotrophs? Where do they grow?
    20 Celsius. Refrigeration temperatures.
  87. What does Psychrotroph mean? Who do these include?
    "Cold Eater". Environmental bacteria.
  88. The most common spoiler of raw meats.
    Pseudomonas fragi.
  89. What is the optimum temperature of Mesophiles? How can their growth be stopped?
    37 Celsius. Cooling, they do not grow at refrigeration temperatures.
  90. Almost all human pathogens fall under what temperature category?
  91. What is the most important exception to the Mesophile rule that they do not grow at refrigeration temperatures?
    Listeria monocytogenes. found in cold cuts of meats and unpasteurized dairy, it causes listeriosis.
  92. What is the optimum temperature for Thermophiles? What does Thermophile mean?
    60 Celsius. Hot Lovers.
  93. What is the danger zone for the growth of foodborne pathogens?
    60-130 Farenheit/15-50 Celsius.
  94. What does Arkansas state law require restaurant temperatures to be for food?
    135 Farenheit.
  95. What can Listeria monocytogenes grow at? What can Clostridium perfringens grow at?
    Below 40 Farenheit. Above 140 Farenheit.
  96. What is Clostridium perfringens most associated with?
    Soups and gravies, for the cause of gastroenteritis.
  97. Foods with less than what percent water content do not have microbial growth?
  98. What organisms tolerate low water content?
  99. What are most Xerophiles?
  100. What is the optimum pH of most bacteria we encounter?
  101. What is the optimum pH of fungi?
  102. What organisms grow in acidic environments? What is the pH of these extreme environments? What are some examples?
    Acidophiles. 4 or less. Lactobacillus.
  103. Most bacteria we encounter can tolerate what salt concentration?
    Less than 2%.
  104. What does high salt/sugar concentration cause?
  105. What organisms require high salt concentrations.
  106. What is an example of an obligate aerobe?
  107. What is an example of a Facultative Anaerobe?
    E. coli, and yeasts.
  108. What is an example of an aerotolerant aneraerobe?
  109. What is an example of an obligate anaerobe?
  110. What are most bacteria in terms of oxygen requirements?
    Facultative anaerobes.
  111. How are ROS usually produced?
    Mistakenly during metabolism.
  112. How do most bacteria multiply?
    Binary fission.
  113. What is the generation time of E. coli?
    20 minutes, faster than most bacteria.
  114. Complete elimination of all lifeforms.
  115. Elimination of all vegetative cells of pathogens.
  116. Reduction of pathogens to a "safe" level.
  117. What is the mechanism of action for Moist Heat?
    Denatures proteins.
  118. What is an example of moist heat?
    Boiling, Autoclaving, Pasteurization.
  119. What is the most common time/temperature combination for autoclaving?
    121 Celsius for 15 minutes.
  120. What is the target organism of commercial canning?
    Clostridium botulinum.
  121. What is the mechanism of action for Dry Heat?
    Kills by burning.
  122. What is an example of Dry Heat?
    Incineration, Hot air.
  123. What is the mechanism of action of Cold?
    Slows metabolism.
  124. What is an example of Cold?
    Freezing, refrigeration.
  125. What is the mechanism of action of Radiation?
    Damages DNA.
  126. What is the mechanism of action of Desiccation?
    Slows metabolism.
  127. What is an example of Desiccation?
    Drying or Dehydrating foods.
  128. What organism tolerates low water levels best?
  129. What is the mechanism of action of Filtration?
    Removes microbes.
  130. What is an example of filtration?
    Membrane filters, Biological safety hoods.
  131. HEPA filter. Name? Capture numbers?
    High-efficiency particulate air filter. 99.95% of 0.3 micrometer particles.
  132. What is the size of most bacteria?
    More than 1 micrometer.
  133. What is the pore size of most membrane filters?
    0.45 micrometers.
  134. What the most resistant microorganisms to chemicals?
    Endospores and mycobacteria.
  135. Why are Pseudomonas so resistant?
    The porins in their outer membrane are extremely selective.
  136. What does Triclosan do? What is it the active ingredient in?
    Disrupts cell membranes. Antibacterial liquid soaps.
  137. What do Fluoride, Chlorine, and Hypochlorite do? What is the PPM of Fluoride?
    Inhibit proteins. ~1000ppm. (Toothpaste).
  138. What is the PPM of chlorine? Where is it used?
    1ppm. Treating drinking water.
  139. What is hypochlorite the active ingredient in?
    Bleach (5% hypochlorite).
  140. What do alcohols do?
    Inhibit proteins and dissolve lipids.
  141. What is Isoproponal used for? Ethanol?
    Common household disinfectant. Injection prep (70%).
  142. What do heavy metals (copper) do?
    Inhibit proteins.
  143. What has copper sulfate been used for?
    Prevent algal growth in pools and fungal growth on grapes.
  144. What does formaldehyde do?
    Inhibits proteins.
  145. What do quats do? What are they the active ingredient in?
    Disrupts cell membranes. Lysol, Fantastik.
  146. What do Hydrogen Peroxide and Benzoyl Peroxide do?
    Cause various oxidation reactions. (BP is in topical acne medications).
  147. What is transcription?
    RNA is made using the information from DNA.
  148. What is translation?
    Proteins are made using the information from RNA.
  149. What is genetic recombination?
    Segments of DNA are transferred from one chromosome to another.
  150. What does DNA Replication occur?
    In the nucleoid.
  151. What does DNA Helicase do?
    Uncoils DNA helix and seperates the two strands.
  152. What does DNA polymerase do?
    Lays down the new nucleotides and forms the new strands of DNA.
  153. What does transcription occur?
    In the cytoplasm of bacteria, or nucleus of eukaryotes.
  154. What is the enzyme responsible for bacterial transcription?
    RNA polymerase.
  155. How does RNA polymerase make a protein?
    Binds the DNA at the promoter, then seperates the two strands of DNA and beings reading it on one strand, it attaches RNA nucleotides according to the DNA and then RNA molecule lengthens until it hits a terminator.
  156. Do bacterial RNA contain introns?
  157. What are introns?
    Segments of RNA that must be removed in order to produce the proper protein later during translation.
  158. What does translation occur?
    Cytoplasm in both bacteria and eukaryotes.
  159. What is mRNA?
    Messenger RNA - contains the DNA message and is the piece of RNA that the ribosome reads.
  160. What is tRNA?
    Transfer RNA - delivers the new amino acids to the ribosome.
  161. What is rRNA?
    Ribosomal RNA - forms part of the ribosome.
  162. What are two mutagens?
    Radiation and Chemicals.
  163. How does Radiation hurt DNA?
    Changes the shape (thymine dimers).
  164. What are aflatoxins produced by?
    Aspergillus flavus, a common environmental mold that often grows on crops.
  165. The most carinogenic naturally-produced substances known.
  166. A test to determine if a chemical is a mutagen.
    The Ames Test.
  167. What is genetic recombination?
    The exchange of DNA between two chromosomes.
  168. What is transformation?
    The uptake of naked DNA from the environment.
  169. What is Conjugation?
    Direct transfer of DNA from one cell to another.
  170. What is Transduction?
    The transfer of DNA from one bacterial cell to another by a bacteriophage.
  171. How do gram-negative bacteria achieve conjugation?
    They use their pilus to attach to other bacteria and reel them in.
  172. DNA with foreign material iserted into it.
    rDNA (recombinant DNA).
  173. What is the most commonly engineered bacterium?
    E coli.
  174. What is the most commonly engineered eukaryotic organism?
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
  175. What is PCR?
    Process that makes multiple copies of a piece of DNA (billions) within a few hours.
  176. What is the heat-stble DNA polymerase used in PCR?
    Taq polymerase from the thermophilic bacterium Thermus aquaticus.
  177. How do labs make transformation easier?
    Adding detergents make the cell membrane more porous.
  178. What is Agrobacterium tumefaciens?
    A plant pathogen (causes gall) that has the ability to inject DNA into plant cells.
  179. What does the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae include?
    E. coli, Salmonella, Proteus, and other gram-negative intestinal bacteria.
  180. How many phyla can the domain Bacteria be divided into?
    Over 20.
  181. What are the two most well-known phyla of Bacteria?
    Proteobacteria and Firmicutes.
  182. Most gram-negative bacteria are in what phylum?
  183. Most gram-positive bacteria are in what phylum?
  184. How do fungi reproduce?
    Using spores.
  185. What are fungal infections called?
  186. What is an example of a fungal infection?
    A yeast infection.
  187. What are fungal toxins called?
  188. Where can a virus get its envelope from?
    The membrane of the host cell it escaped.
  189. Why are viruse obligate intracellular parasites?
    They can only reproduce inside the cells of a living host.
  190. How can the cells a virus can infect be determined?
    The specific receptors on the surface of the cell. The receptor is usually a protein or polysaccharide
  191. The penetration of host defenses and colonization by a pathogen.
  192. A state of unhealth, loss of homeostasis, or the presence of symptoms.
  193. The number of new cases reported during a period of time.
  194. The total number of cases during a period of time.
  195. What are the most common nosocomial infections?
    Gram-positive cocci (Staphylococcus) followed by gram-negative rods (E. coli, Psuedomonas).
  196. Risk of infection by what bacteria is increased during antibiotic therapy?
    Clostridium difficile and Candida albicans.
  197. In order to cause disease what must a microbe do?
    Be capable of causing disease, must be transmitted to the host, and the host must be susceptible.
  198. What do portals of entry include?
    Mucous membranes, and the skin.
  199. What are nearly all bacterial toxins?
  200. Which system in the Immune System never changes throughout life?
  201. What is the major protein of skin?
  202. What is the pH of the skin?
    3-5 due to fatty acids in sebum as well as acids by bacteria on our skin.
  203. What is the pH of the stomach?
    About 2.
  204. What are transferrins?
    Iron-binding proteins in the blood, saliva, milk, and tears. We remove important nutrients for microbes by preventing iron from floating free in our fluids.
  205. Our normal microbiota contribute to Innate Immunity when it does what?
    Crowd out pathogens, Produce acids.
  206. The most common genus in the colon.
  207. Abundantly found in the intestine of animals.
    E. coli.
  208. The most common species of the skin.
    Staphylococcus epidermidis.
  209. A major contributor to the acidity of the skin.
    Propionibacterium acnes.
  210. Major contributor to foot and body odor.
    Brevibacterium linens.
  211. Common member of the normal microbiota and among the first colonizers of the colon after we're born.
    Lactobacillus acidophilus.
  212. The most common of the leukocytes.
  213. The first responders to infection and show in the largest numbers.
  214. Contain vesicles of histamine.
  215. How are Basophils important in anaphalytic shock?
    They release histamine when stimulated and capillaries expand and become leaky all over the body, the loss of fluid from blood stream results in shock.
  216. Important in the defense against parasitic worms.
  217. How do Eosinophils kill helminths?
    Releasing toxins and ROS.
  218. Arrive second to sites of infection and act as the clean-up crew.
  219. How do Natural Killer Cells kill infected cells.
    When they recognize an infected cell they release perforin which creates holes in the cell membrane, and granzymes which enter the cells and induce apoptosis.
  220. Any chemical that stimulates or regulates immune cells.
  221. Immune cells that live under the skin and mucous membranes.
    Mast cells.
  222. What is the process of inflammation?
    Damaged mast cells release histamine and other chemicals.
  223. What is pus?
    A creamy mix of fluids that have leaked from the bloodstream and the immune cells that have migrated to the infected area.
  224. Why are B and T Cells called lymphocytes?
    They spend most of their time in the lymph system (lymph nodes).
  225. What are lymph nodes?
    Enlarged pockets that occur along the vessels of the lymph system.
  226. What are Helper T Cells also known as?
    CD4 Cells.
  227. Ringleader of the immune system.
    Helper T Cells.
  228. Most B Cells become what? What do the rest become?
    Plasma cells, Memory cells.
  229. Proteins produced by plasma cell in response to an antigen.
  230. What is another term for antibody?
  231. Any molecule that stimulates the production of antibodies.
  232. What are antigens usually?
    Proteins or Polysaccharides on the surface of a pathogen.
  233. What are Cytotoxic T Cells also called?
    CD8 Cells.
  234. Humoral immunity.
    Provided by antibodies against extracellular pathogens.
  235. Cell-mediated immunity.
    Provided by Cytotoxic T Cells against intracellular pathogens.
  236. How does HIV infect CD4 cells?
    A protein in the envelope (gp120) attaches to the CD4 on Helper T cells.
  237. What number does the Helper T Cell have to be at to be diagnosed with AIDS? What is the normal level of Helper T Cells?
    200/mm3. 1000/mm3.
  238. What antibiotics inhibit peptidoglycan synthesis?
    Penicillin (all of the -cillins), Bacitracin.
  239. What antibiotics inhibit protein synthesis?
    Tetracycline (all the -cyclines), Neomycin, Erythromycin.
  240. What antibiotics inhibit nutrient synthesis?
    Trimethroprim and Sulfamethoxazole (all sulfa drugs) (inhibit folic acid synthesis)
  241. What antibiotics injure cell membrane?
    Polymyxin B, Clotrimazole, and Miconazole.
  242. What is Triple Antibiotic Ointment?
    Bacitracin, Neomycin, and Polymyxin B.
  243. The original antibiotic.
    Penicillin. Penicillium chrysogenum.
  244. What are the antifungal antibiotics and how do they work?
    Clotrimazole and Miconazole. Inhibit ergosterol synthesis, prescribed for yeast infections, athlete's foot, jock itch.
Card Set:
Micro Final
2011-05-01 23:53:13

Accumulative chapters 1-22 for Final
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