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Aaron Beck's view of depression
believed that depression is due to unrealistic negative views about the world. They develop negative views about: themselves, the world, and their future. Beck starts treatment by engaging in conversation with patients about their negative thoughts. (Cognitive therapy)
the smallest detectable level of a stimulus, or the lowest intensity at which a stimulus can be detected 50% of the time. example: hearing a stimulus of RMS sound pressure 20 micropascals= smallest a young human with normal hearing can detect.
Achievement vs Aptitude tests
- Aptitude tests are used to predict success in a career path or course of study.
- Achievement tests are designed to measure how much a person has already achieved or learned in academic knowledge.
Action vs Resting potential
- Action Potential: the change in electrical potential that occurs between the inside and outside of a nerve or muscle fiber when it is stimulated, serving to transmit nerve signals.
- Resting Potential: the membrane potential of a cell that is not exhibiting the activity resulting from a stimulus.
Clearness of vision, which is dependent on the sharpness of the retinal focus within the eye and the sensitivity of the interpretative faculty of the brain.
Ainsworth Strange Situation (Paradigm)
an assessment technique used to investigate how attachments might vary between children. studied babies' behavior with/without their mothers and with/without strangers. Three types of attatchment found: Secure Attatchment, Resistant Attatchment, and Avoidant Attatchment.
Albert Bandura's social learning theory stressed the importance of observational learning, imitation and modeling. His theory integrates a continuous interaction between behaviors, cognitions and the environment. (Social-Cognitive Perspective). Significant because his BoBo doll experiment deviated from behaviorism's insitance that behavior stemmed only from reward and reinforcement.
Albert Ellis, Rational Emotive Therapy (RET)
Ellis, like Beck, was initially a psychoanalyst who broke away from psychoanalysis because itwas too superficial and unhelpful. Didactic, directive, emphasizes analyzing and doing, influenced by Alfred Adler, involves reciprocal determinism between cognitions, emotions, and behaviors.
Alfred Adler- Inferiority Complex
According to Alfred Adler, who was the first one to coin the term inferiority complex, every child experiences the feelings of inferiority as the result of being surrounded by stronger and more capable adults.As the child grows he becomes derived by his original feelings of inferiority he experienced earlier and so he strives for power and recognition.If the child failed to meet certain life challenges as a result during his act of compensation then he develops an inferiority complex.So according to Adler every child feels inferior but not every one develops an inferiority complex which only affects those who failed to compensate correctly.
All-or-nothing law of neural firing
Once a neuron begins firing it can only fire at full charge- there is no partial firing.
The selfless concern for the welfare of others.
American Psychological Association (APA)
A scientific and professional organization that represents psychologists in the United States.
Amnesia (Anterograde and Retrograde)
Anterograde amnesia is a loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact. Retrograde amnesia is the loss of access to events and information of the past after the onset of disease or injury. Anterograde amnesia and retrograde amnesia, where memories created prior to the event are lost, can occur together in the same patient.
This is an optical illusion that makes a still object appear to move. It works by flashing pictures of a still image in different locations so quickly that the image seems to move from one location to the other. If you draw a picture of a stick person throwing a ball, and have consecutive pictures of the ball in different spots along its path until in the last picture it is on the ground, and then flip quickly through the pictures, it would appear the ball was actually thrown.
Arousal (Emotion and Sexual)
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