Psych Chpt 6

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Psych Chpt 6
2011-05-02 14:32:43

Exam 2, Learning
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  1. built in to the organism
    Rudimentary learning
  2. if you repeat a neutral stimulus, the response is likely to decrease over time

    this is less likely if the stimulus is threatening

    ex: getting poked for an hour straight, less likely to happen if getting punched
  3. Becoming more sensitive after a threatening stimulus

    ex: being poked after being punched repeatedly
  4. attachment of younger animlas to older animals/birds
    This is not limited to within a species
    ex: geese on humans
  5. relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience. All organisms _______, it is necessary to survival
  6. a type of learned response that occurs when a neutral object comes to elicit a reflexive response when it is ASSOCIATED with a stimulus that already elicits a response
    *about the antecedent
    Pavlovian/Classical Conditioning
  7. learning through forming associations between experiences-->a process in which environmental stimuli and behavioral responses become connected

    An extremely simple form of learning- even happens in womb
  8. Studied saliva production in dogs
    Rang bell when he brought out meat, dogs eventually strated salivating at just the sound of the bell
  9. a stimulus that provokes an unconditioned response w/out previous conditioning
    a stimulus that ellicits a response such as a reflex without prior learning
    EX: MEAT
    Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
  10. a response that does not have to be learned
    ex: a reflex
    Unconditioned Response (UCR)
  11. a stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place
    a previously neutral stimulus which has acquired meaning through conditioning
    EX: BELL
    Conditioned Response (CR)
  12. a response that has been learned
    -occurs because of previous condititioning
    -usually weaker than the UCR
    Conditioned Response (CR)
  13. onset of a CS (Bell), a bit before UCS (meat), ends with UCS
  14. newer stimuli lead to faster learning--> b/c no other associations
    ex: Jaws music new, more effective than if they had used Mary Had a Little Lamb
  15. prepared stimuli are those that we are evolutionarily prepared to associate
    Biological Preparedness
  16. Learned Taste Aversions- Garcia's Rats
    • Easier to condition taste/smell with nausea than light or sound
    • Very true with novel tastes
    • Things that occur outside the body (ex: pain) easier to condition to vision/light
    • Things that occur inside the body eiasier to condition to taste/smell
  17. Learned Fear: Mineka's Monkeys
    • Easier to condition lab monkeys to fear a snake than a flower (primates have biology to fear snakes)
    • Ex: modern day phobias are still heights, spiders, etc. Not car accidents
  18. the gradual formation of an association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli
  19. the process in which the CR is weakened when the CS is repeated without the UCS
    EX: ringing the bell without meat--> eventually the dog stops salivating to bell
    **takes longer with biologically prepared stiumuli
  20. a process in which a previously extinguished response reemerges following presentation of the CS
    *when CR rebounds after time of no exposure to CS
    *will fade quickly unless CS is paired with UCS
    Spontaneous Recovery
  21. occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the CS produce the CR
    EX: Watson's Little Albert and the white rat
    -->grew to fear all fuzzy things
    Stimulus Generalization
  22. a differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one of them is consistently associated with the UCS
    **when learning becomes specific
    ex: dogs only salivate at Pavlov's bell, not doorbell
    Stimulus Discrimination
  23. when a CS becomes directly associated not with the UCS, but with other stimulus associated with UCS
    *mostly implicit
    Second-Order Conditioning
  24. a learning process in which the CONSEQUENCES of an action determine the likelihood that it will be performed in the future
    -Skinner reasoned we learn from cosequences as much as from antecedents
    Operant/Instrumental Conditioning
  25. any behavior leading to a favorable outcome will more likely occur again and negative result will be less likely to occur
    law of effect
  26. occurs when the consequences of a response INCREASES an organism's tendency to make that response
    -->increase in action
  27. response increases because it gets a positive
    ex: allowance for cleaning room
    Positive Reinforcement
  28. response increases because a negative is removed
    ex: no nagging after room is cleaned
    Negative Reinforcement
  29. Occurs when the presentation of a negative consequence DECREASES tendency to make the response
  30. Behavior decreases because of a negative response
    ex: spanking
    Positive Punishment
  31. Behavior decreases because of removal of a positive
    ex: no TV for not cleaning room
    Negative Punishment
  32. Psychologist who reasoned that reinforcement is generally preferable to punishment
    -punishment can cause unintended responses (ex: fear of punisher)
    -better to reinforce positive behavior than to punish bad behavior
  33. a process of operant conditioning, it involves reinforcing behaviors that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior
    ex: dog training- treat for lifting paw-treat for lifting near hand-treat for high five
  34. reinforcing "chains" of behavior into one stream, only reinforce when entire "chain" of previously reinforced behaviors are emitted in the right order
    -HOW: reinforce each behavior as it is done in order then withold reinforcement until two behaviors done in order--> repeat until done in order
  35. if a behavior was previously reinforced, ten becomes unreinforced, behavior will extinguish over time
  36. if you reward a behavior that otherwise was inherently interesting/rewarding--> can reduce enjoyment of it
    ex: reading program
    Over justification effect
  37. when an unreinforced behavior continues to be emitted often due to types of reinforcers
    Resistence to Extinction
  38. events that are inherently reinforcing becasue they satisfy biological needs (food, affection, etc)
    Primary Reinforcers
  39. events taht acquire primary reinforcing qualities through association (ex: money)
    Secondary Reinforcement
  40. when every instance of the desired behavior is reinforced
    **good for initial learing
    ex: potty training
    Continuous Reinforcers
  41. When the desired behavior is reinforced only some of the time
    *better for long term persistence of behavior
    *leads to greater resistence to extinction
    ex: slot machines
    Variable/Partial Reinforcement
  42. results in superstitions
    ex: pigeon experiment
    baseball players, swimmers
    Random reinforcement
  43. learning through imitation
    -learning that occurs when behaviors are acquired or modified following exposure to other performing the behavior
    Observational Learning
  44. the imitation of behavior through observational learning
  45. learning that occurs when people learn the consequences of an action by observing others being rewarded or punished for that behavior
    Vicarious Learning
  46. a visual/spatial representation of an environment
    cognitive maps
  47. learning without reinforcement
    latent learning
  48. a solution suddenly emerges after a period of inaction or contemplation of problem
    -a form of problem solving
    insight learning
  49. to strengthen, make something more potente
  50. the strengthening of a synaptic connection so that postsynaptic nerurons are more easily activated
    Long Term Potentiation (LTP)
  51. LTP results from changes in the postsynaptic neruton that make it more easily activated
  52. a type of glutamate receptor required for LTP
    -only opens if nearby neuron fires at same time
    activation of these receptors increases learning
    NMDA Receptor
  53. may induce LTP in amygdala
    fear conditioning