Pharmacology Final

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  1. Pharmacologic activity of garlic involves
    a variety of organosulfur compounds
  2. Responsible for the odor of garlic
  3. Pharmacologic action of allicin invitro
    • inhibits HMG-CoA reductase
    • antioxidant properties
  4. Other reported actions of garlic
    • antiplatlet effects
    • fibrinolytic effects
    • increased blood vessel elasticity
    • decreased BP
    • Antineoplastic effects/prevention
  5. ADEs with garlic from most likely to least
    • breath and body odor
    • nausea
    • hypotension
    • allergy
    • contact dermatitis
    • bleeding
  6. Drug interactions with garlic
    • synergistic with anti-platelet medications
    • reduces bioavailability of saquinavir (PI)
  7. Dosage forms for garlic
    • dried powder with 1.3% alliin
    • enteric coated to minimize degradation of active substances
  8. Dose for garlic
    • 600-900 mg/day
    • equivalent to 1 clove of raw garlic per day
  9. Ginkgo active constituents
    • flavone glycosides
    • terpenoids
  10. Pharmacologic effects with ginkgo
    • increase blood flow
    • reduce blood viscosity
    • promote vasodilation
    • enhance tissue perfusion
    • enhancement of endogenous nitric oxide and antagonism of platelet activating factor
  11. efficacy of ginkgo is comparable to
  12. Metabolic effects of ginkgo
    antioxidant properties
  13. Ginkgo has a protective effect in ____ by reducing free radical formation
    ishcemic injury
  14. CNS effects with ginkgo
    modifications of system receptors and neurotransmitters in 3-4 weeks
  15. Gingko increases
    • muscarinic receptors
    • acetylcholine
    • norepinephrine
    • serotonin reuptake
  16. Ginkgo decreases
    • beta adrenoreceptors
    • coricosterone synthesis
    • amyloid-beta fibril formation
  17. Ginkgo has been used to treat
    cerebral insufficiency and dementia related to alzheimer's
  18. Benefits of ginkgo to prevent dementia
    no benefit observed with 6 years of treatment
  19. ADEs with gingko
    • nausea
    • headache
    • diarrhea
    • allergy
    • anxiety
    • insomnia
  20. Drug interactions with ginkgo
    • antiplatelet properties
    • enhanced sedation with trazadone
    • avoid in pt with pre-existing seizure disorders
  21. Ginseng is derived from several species of the genus
  22. most common active ingredient in Ginseng in the US
    p quinquefolium
  23. ___ & ___ ginseng are not from the Panax species
    siberian and brazilian
  24. Siberian ginseng is more widely available in the US and contains
    eleutherosides but no ginsenosides
  25. Pharmacological immune effects with ginsenosides
    • modulation of immune function
    • expression of IL-2, IL-1a, interferon gamma and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor
    • activation of b and t cells, NK cells and macrophages
  26. neurotransmitter effects of ginseng
    increased ach, 5HT, NE and DA in the cerebral cortex
  27. Other activities of ginseg
    • antioxidant activity
    • anti-inflammatory effects
    • anti-stress activity
    • analgesic
    • antiplatelet
    • improved glucose homeostasis
    • anticancer properties
  28. Clinical trials evaluating ginseng indications have shown
    few if any benefits
  29. strongest indications for ginseng
    cold prevention and lowering post prandial glucose
  30. ADEs with ginseng
    • vaginal bleeding
    • mastalgia
    • CNS stimulation
    • HTN (contains methylxanthines)
  31. Drug interactions with ginseng
    • psych meds
    • estrogenic meds
    • hypoglycemics
    • warfarin (increased anti-platelet)
Card Set
Pharmacology Final
Dietary and Herbal II
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