AP Psych important Terms

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AP Psych important Terms
2011-05-02 01:03:34
psychology terms ap

a load of useful terms
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  1. Asch's conformity study (line segments)
    Asch gave groups of seven or nine college students what appeared to be a test of perceptual judgment: matching the length of a line segment to comparison lines. Although people could pick the correct line 99% of the time when making the judgments by themselves, they went along with the erroneous group judgment 75% of the time, even when it was plainly wrong.
  2. Attribution Theory
    The theory that describes the process of how individuals explain causes of behaviors and events. Some bias and errors in attribution are the fundamental attribution error, culture, spotlight effect, actor/observer difference, dispositional attributions, and the self-serving bias.
  3. Aversive conditioning (good or bad?)
    Also referred to as aversion therapy, a technique used in behavior therapy to reduce the appeal of behaviors one wants to eliminate by associating them with physical or psychological discomfort. In adults, aversive conditioning is often used to combat addictions such as smoking or alcoholism. One common method is the administration of a nausea-producing drug while the client is smoking or drinking so that unpleasant associations are paired with the addictive behavior.
  4. Babinski response
    The Babinski Reflex is a normal response in infants up to the age of 2, in which the big toe extends upwards and backwards, while the other toes fan outwardly; however, in adults a positive Babinski Sign is pathological and often indicative of severe damage to the central nervous system
  5. Linguistic determinism (Benjamin Whorf)
    Linguistic determinism is the idea that language and its structures limit and determine human knowledge or thought. Determinism itself refers to the viewpoint that all events are caused by previous events, and linguistic determinism can be used broadly to refer to a number of specific views.
  6. Binocular Disparity
    the difference in image location of an object seen by the left and right eyes, resulting from the eyes' horizontal separation. The brain uses binocular disparity to extract depth information from the two-dimensional retinal images.
  7. blind spot
    the place in the visual field that corresponds to the lack of light-detecting photoreceptor cells on the optic disc of the retina where the optic nerve passes through it. Since there are no cells to detect light on the optic disc, a part of the field of vision is not perceived. The brain fills in with surrounding detail and with information from the other eye, so the blind spot is not normally perceived
  8. Blood Brain Barrier
    The barrier between brain blood vessels and brain tissues whose effect is to restrict what may pass from the blood into the brain
  9. Cerebral Cortex
    The wrinkly covering on the outside of brains. Humans have much more cerebral cortex than animals, ours is more wrinkly..
  10. Broca's aphasia (expressive) located in the left frontal lobe
    unable to control muscle movements in speech
  11. Cannon's critique of James-Lange theory
    • a) People who show different emotions may have the same physiological (visceral) state - Example: cry when happy & sad
    • b) visceral changes are often too difficult to notice by a person having the experience to be used as cues
    • c) visceral changes are often too slow to be a source of emotions, which erupt very quickly. For example, when something bad happens to you, do you always cry before you feel sad? Or can you feel sad before crying?
    • d) physiological arousal may occur without the experience of an emotion: For example: exercise --> increased heart rate --> no emotional significance
  12. Carl Rogers (client centered therapy)
    In client-centered therapy, the therapist listens without trying to provide solutions. The therapist must create an atmosphere in which clients can communicate their feelings with certainty that they are being understood rather than judged. It is critiqued for the vagueness of its principles, its antipathy to diagnosis, and its emphasis on the client’s self-evaluation as the way to judge the outcome of therapy. Client-centered therapy may work less well with people who find it difficult to talk about themselves or have a mental illness that distorts their perceptions of reality.
  13. Carol Gilligan's critique of Kohlberg's theory
    Carol Gilligan has argued that Kohlberg's theory is overly androcentric. Kohlberg's theory was initially developed based on empirical research using only male participants; Gilligan argued that it did not adequately describe the concerns of women. Although research has generally found no significant pattern of differences in moral development between sexes, Gilligan's theory of moral development does not focus on the value of justice. She developed an alternative theory of moral reasoning based on the ethics of caring.
  14. Chunking
    A strategy for making more efficient use of short-term memory by recoding information. Chunking means to organize items into familiar manageable units.
  15. Classical Conditioning vs Operant Conditioning
    Classical Conditioning describes an involuntary, or automatic, response to a stimulus. Operant Conditioning is a set of principals that describe how an animal learns to survive in its environment through reinforcement (consequences).
  16. Clever Hans experiment
    Hans was a horse that William Von Osten taught to do math calculations- or so he thought. The horse would tap his foot to give answers, and was correct a large amount of the time. The first thing that became apparent was that Hans needed visual contact with the questioner in order to answer correctly. The further away the questioner was, the less accurate he became. When Hans was blinkered, his ability to answer was diminished even further.The other major finding, was that Hans could only answer correctly if the questioner also knew the answer to the question. When the questioner did not know the answer to the question, Hans could not find the answer.The fact that Hans could only answer questions when he could see a questioner who knew the answer, led the psychologists to realise that Hans wasn't using intelligence to work out the answers, but was responding to visual cues given by the questioner.
  17. Cognitive Dissonance
    Cognitive dissonance is an uncomfortable feeling caused by holding conflicting ideas simultaneously. The theory of cognitive dissonance proposes that people have a motivational drive to reduce dissonance. They do this by changing their attitudes, beliefs, and actions. Dissonance is also reduced by justifying, blaming, and denying. It is one of the most influential and extensively studied theories in social psychology.
  18. Correlational Study
    A correlational study is a scientific study in which a researcher investigates associations between variables. A correlation coefficient may be calculated. This correlation coefficient is a quantitative measure of the association between two variables. The goal of correlational research is to find out whether one or more variables can predict other variables. Correlational research allows us to find out what variables may be related. However, the fact that two things are related or correlated does not mean there is a causal relationship. It is important to make a distinction between causation and correlation. Two things can be correlated without there being a causal relationship.
  19. Major cortexes of the brain
  20. Cross Sectional Study vs Longitudinal Study
    The longitudinal study uses time as the main variable, and tries to make an in depth study of how a small sample changes and fluctuates over time.A cross sectional study, on the other hand, takes a snapshot of a population at a certain time, allowing conclusions about phenomena across a wide population to be drawn.
  21. Crystallized intelligence
    acquired and usually does not decline with age
  22. Daniel Goleman's views on emotional intelligence
    • Goleman identified the five 'domains' of EQ as:
    • Knowing your emotions.
    • Managing your own emotions.
    • Motivating yourself.
    • Recognizing and understanding other people's emotions.
    • Managing relationships, ie., managing the emotions of others.
  23. David McClelland's achievement motivation studies
    • McClelland and a group of experts revolutionised the field of organisational behaviour studies through their experimentation with the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). This methodology involved measurement of human needs and motivation through the usage of pictorial displays. McClelland's innovative conclusions from the Tat Studies indicated that people acquired different needs over time as a result of life experiences. He identified three needs that affect motivation of organisational behaviour both of individuals and organisations:
    • Need for Achievement - The desire to do something better or more efficiently to solve problems, or to master complex tasks.
    • Need for Affiliation - The desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations with others.
    • Need for Power - The desire to control others, to influence their behaviour, or to be responsible for others
  24. Major Defense Mechanisms (list seven)
    • 1. Repression
    • 2. Regression
    • 3. Displacement
    • 4. Projection
    • 5. Rationalization
    • 6. Denial
    • 7. Intellectualization
  25. Deindividuation
    A concept in social psychology regarding the loosening of social norms in groups.
  26. Deinstitutionalization
    the process of replacing long-stay psychiatric hospitals with less isolated community mental health services for those diagnosed with mental disorder or developmental disability. Deinstitutionalisation can have two definitions. The first definition focuses on reducing the population size of mental institutions. This can be accomplished by releasing individuals from institutions, shortening the length of stays, and reducing both admissions and readmission. The second definition refers to removing institutional processes from mental hospitals that may create dependency, hopelessness, learned helplessness, and other maladaptive behaviors.
  27. Descriptive vs Inferential Statistics
    Descriptive statistics includes collecting, organizing, summarizing, and presenting data. Inferential statistics is when we “make inferences”, do hypothesis testing, determine relationships, and make predictions.
  28. Determinism
    A concept that deals with one of the most fundamental questions of human nature; namely, whether or not man's behavior, thinking, and feeling are driven by something called free will.
  29. Developmental Psychology
    The scientific study of systematic psychological changes that occur in human beings over the course of their life span. Originally concerned with infants and children, the field has expanded to include adolescence, adult development, aging, and the entire life span. This field examines change across a broad range of topics including motor skills and other psycho-physiological processes; cognitive development involving areas such asproblem solving, moral understanding, and conceptual understanding; language acquisition; social, personality, and emotional development; and self-concept and identity formation.
  30. Dominant Responses (aided by social facilitation)
    What you do well, you are likely to do even better in front of an audience, especially a friendly audience. However, what you normally find difficult may seem all but impossible when you are being watched.
  31. Dream analysis
    Carl Jung was one of the first people to do this. Analyzing dreams to discover hidden motives, emotions, or repressed desires.
  32. Echoic Memory
    This particular sensory store is capable of storing large amounts of auditory information that is only retained for a short period of time (3-4 seconds). This echoic sound resonates in the mind and is replayed for this brief amount of time shortly after the presentation of auditory stimuli.
  33. Effects of Marijuana
    The active ingredient in marijuana, THC, acts on cannabinoid receptors on nerve cells and influences the activity of those cells. Many cannabinoid receptors are found in the parts of the brain that influence pleasure, memory, thought, concentration, sensory and time perception, and coordinated movement. Some effects are: Distorted perception (sights, sounds, time, touch), problems with memory and learning, loss of coordination, trouble with thinking and problem-solving, increased heart rate, and reduced blood pressure.
  34. Eidetic Memory
    The ability to recall images, sounds, or objects in memory with extreme precision and in abundant volume.
  35. Elizabeth Loftus' research on eyewitness testimony
    She showed films depicting complex automobile accident scenarios to participants and studied how post-event information could distort their memories. Asking a leading question, or even changing one word in a question, could distort a witness's recollections. For example, replacing a neutral word like “hit” with a suggestive word like “smashed” caused more witnesses to recall seeing broken glass at the scene, when none was actually present. Loftus believed that eyewitness testimony by itself should not be enough to convict a person.
  36. Endocrine organs, and hormones
    The major glands of the endocrine system are the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pineal body, and the reproductive organs (ovaries andtestes). The pancreas is also a part of this system; it has a role in hormoneproduction as well as in digestion.
  37. Engram
    A physical alteration thought to occur in living neural tissue in response to stimuli, posited as an explanation for memory.
  38. Eric Erickson's 8 stages of psychosocial development
    • 1. Oral-Sensory (trust vs. mistrust)
    • 2. Muscular-Anal (autonomy vs. shame and doubt)
    • 3. Locomotor (initiative vs. guilt)
    • 4. Latency (industry vs. inferiority)
    • 5. Adolescence (identity vs. role confusion)
    • 6. Young Adulthood (intimacy vs. isolation)
    • 7. Middle Adulthood (generativity vs. stagnation)
    • 8. Maturity (egointegrity vs. despair)
  39. False consensus effect
    A cognitive bias whereby a person tends to overestimate how much other people agree with him or her.
  40. Hubel & Wisel, visual processing
    By depriving kittens from using one eye, they showed that columns in the primary visual cortex receiving inputs from the other eye took over the areas that would normally receive input from the deprived eye. These kittens also did not develop areas receiving input from both eyes, a feature needed for binocular vision. Hubel and Wiesel's experiments showed that the ocular dominance develops irreversibly early in childhood development
  41. Feature analysis
    • According to this theory, the sensory system breaks down the incoming stimuli into its features and processes the information. Some features may be more important for recognition than others. All stimuli have a set of distinctive features. Feature analysis proceeds through 4 stages:
    • -Detection
    • -Pattern dissection
    • -Feature comparison in memory
    • -Recognition
  42. Feral Children
    any children who have remained isolated from human contact from birth. a wild child.
  43. Figure-ground phenomenon
    The division of the perceptual field into background and objects that appear to stand out against it. The concept was evolved by the Gestalt psychologists, who invented ambiguous figures in which the same part could be seen either as figure or ground
  44. Formal Operational stage of Cognitive Development
    Developed by Jean Piaget, the formal operational stage begins at approximately age twelve to and lasts into adulthood. During this time, people develop the ability to think about abstract concepts. Skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning, and systematic planning also emerge during this stage.
  45. Fovea
    The fovea is responsible for sharp central vision (also called foveal vision), which is necessary in humans for reading, watching television or movies, driving, and any activity where visual detail is of primary importance. Located in the back of the eye.
  46. Francis Galton's research
    The thesis of his book is that "genius" or "talent" is genetically rather than environmentally determined. He writes that "there is no escape from the conclusion that nature prevails enormously over nurture when the differences of nurture do not exceed what is commonly found among persons of the same rank of society and in the same country "
  47. Free Association
    In free association, psychoanalytic patients are invited to relate whatever comes into their minds during the analytic session, and not to censor their thoughts. This technique is intended to help the patient learn more about what he or she thinks and feels, in an atmosphere of non-judgmental curiosity and acceptance.
  48. Freud's stage of psychosexual development
    oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
  49. Frustration-aggression hypothesis
    The principle that frustration - the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal - creates anger, which can generate aggression.
  50. Functional Fixedness
    A cognitive bias that limits a person to using an object only in the way it is traditionally used. The concept of functional fixedness originated in Gestalt Psychology, which is a movement in psychology that emphasizes holistic processing where the whole is seen as being separate from the sum of its parts.
  51. Fundamental Attribution Error
    The tendency to over-value dispositional or personality-based explanations for the observed behaviors of others while under-valuing situational explanations for those behaviors.
  52. Galvanic skin response (GSR)
    A method of measuring the electrical conductance of the skin, which varies with its moisture level. This is of interest because the sweat glands are controlled by thesympathetic nervous system, so skin conductance is used as an indication of psychological or physiological arousal.
  53. Ganglia
    A biological tissue mass, most commonly a mass of nerve cell bodies.
  54. Ganzfeld Procedure
    A technique used in the field of parapsychology to test individuals for extrasensory perception (ESP). It uses homogeneous and unpatterned sensory stimulation to produce an effect similar to sensory deprivation.
  55. Gate Control Theory of pain
    Ronald Melzack and Patrick Wall proposed that a gating mechanism exists within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Descending pathways from the brain close the gate by inhibiting the projector neurons and diminishing pain perception. If you rub or shake your hand after you bang your finger, you stimulate normal somatosensory input to the projector neurons. This opens the gate and reduces the perception of pain.
  56. Genotype & Phenotype
    "Genotype" is an organism's full hereditary information, even if not expressed. "Phenotype" is an organism's actual observed properties, such as morphology, development, or behavior. This distinction is fundamental in the study of inheritance of traits and their evolution.
  57. Gestalt Theory
    • Gestalt is a psychology term which means "unified whole". It refers to theories of visual perception developed by German psychologists in the 1920s. These theories attempt to describe how people tend to organize visual elements intogroups or unified wholes when certain principles are applied. These principles are:
    • -Similarity
    • -Continuation
    • -Closure
    • -Proximity
    • -Figure and Ground
  58. Groupthink
    The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
  59. Gustatory sense
    detects only sweet, sour, salty, bitter.
  60. Habituation
    A form of non-associative learning, habituation is the psychological process in humans and other organisms in which there is a decrease in psychological and behavioral response to a stimulus after repeated exposure to that stimulus over a duration of time.
  61. Hans Selye's General Adaptation Response
    He observed that the body would respond to any external biological source of stress with a predictable biological pattern in an attempt to restore the body’s internal homeostasis. This initial hormonal reaction is your fight or flight stress response - and its purpose is for handling stress very quickly! The process of the body’s struggle to maintain balance is what Selye termed, the General Adaptation Syndrome. Pressures, tensions, and other stressors can greatly influence your normal metabolism. Selye determined that there is a limited supply of adaptive energy to deal with stress. That amount declines with continuous exposure.
  62. Harry Harlow's research with surrogate mothers
    First, he showed that mother love was emotional rather than physiological, substantiating the adoption-friendly theory that continuity of care—“nurture”—was a far more determining factor in healthy psychological development than “nature.” Second, he showed that capacity for attachment was closely associated with critical periods in early life, after which it was difficult or impossible to compensate for the loss of initial emotional security.
  63. Hawthorne Effect
    A form of reactivity whereby subjects improve or modify an aspect of their behavior being experimentally measured simply in response to the fact that they are being studied, not in response to any particular experimental manipulation.
  64. Heuristics
    Major types: availaility, hind-sight bias, representative, fixation, overconfidence.
  65. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
    • 1. Physiological (breathing, food, water, sex, sleep, homeostasis, excretion.)
    • 2. Safety
    • 3. Love/Belonging
    • 4. Esteem
    • 5. Self-Actualization
  66. Hindsight Bias
    The inclination to see events that have already occurred as being more predictable than they were before they took place.
  67. Histogram
    a graphical representation, showing a visual impression of the distribution of data
  68. Howard Gardner's view of multiple intelligence
    Linguistic, Logical-mathematical, Spatial, Musical, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Intrapersonal, Interpersonal
  69. Dissociative Theory
    A partial or complete disruption of the normal integration of a person’s conscious or psychological functioning. Dissociation can be a response to trauma or drugs and perhaps allows the mind to distance itself from experiences that are too much for the psyche to process at that time. Dissociative disruptions can affect any aspect of a person’s functioning.
  70. Hypothalamus
    A neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities and helps givern the endocrine system cia the pituitary gland. It is about the size of an almond, and controls body temperature, hunger, thirst, fatigue, sleep, and circadian cycles.
  71. Id, Ego, Superego
    According to Sigmund Freud's model of the psyche, the id is the set of uncoordinated instinctual trends; the ego is the organized, realistic part; and the super-ego plays the critical and moralising role
  72. IDEAL (strategy for solving problems)
    Identify, Define, Explore, Act, Look & Learn
  73. Illusory Correlation
    The phenomenon of seeing the relationship one expects in a set of data even when no such relationship exists.
  74. Imaging techniques
    Takes pictures of the brain as the neurons are metabolizing (red areas = healthy, black = dead); slices of the brain from any angle (colorized c-ray from any degree); allign atomic particles with magnets to pick up energy they give off and to convert it to pictures. PET, CAT, MRI, FMRI.
  75. Inductive vs. Deductive reasoning
    Inductive and deductive reasoning are two methods of logic used to arrive at a conclusion based on information assumed to be true. Both are used in research to establish hypotheses. Deductive reasoning arrives at a specific conclusion based on generalizations. Inductive reasoning takes events and makes generalizations.
  76. Interference (proactive vs. retroactive)
    Proactive Interference occurs when in any given context, past memories inhibit an individual’s full potential to retain new memories. Retroactive Interference impedes the retrieval and performance of previously learnt information due to newly acquired and practiced information.
  77. James-Lange theory of emotions
    Emotions are feelings which come about as a result of physiological changes, rather than being their cause.
  78. L-dopa
    A chemical related to dopamine that is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
  79. Long term potentiation
    A long-lasting enhancement in signal transmission between two neurons that results from stimulating them synchronously.
  80. Major neurotransmitters
    serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine, GABA, epinephrine, norepinephrine. Ach - enable muscle action, learning, and memory (used with alzheimers), GABA - a major inhibitory neurotransmitter (linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia), Serotonin - affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal (depression), Dopamine - influences movement.
  81. Martin Seligman's "learned helplessness"
    A condition of a human person or an animal in which it has learned to behave helplessly, even when the opportunity is restored for it to help itself by avoiding an unpleasant or harmful circumstance to which it has been subjected. Learned helplessness theory is the view that clinical depressionand related mental illnesses may result from a perceived absence of control over the outcome of a situation.
  82. Mental Age
    the age at which a child is performing intellectually.
  83. Mental Set
    Many people approach problems in similar ways all the time even though they can't be sure they have the best approach or an approach that will even work. Doing this is an example of mental set -- a tendency to approach situations the same way because that way worked in the past.
  84. Metacognition
    thinking about thinking, controlling your thoughts
  85. Method of loci
    This is a mnemonic device or technique in which a person visualizes the items they're trying to learn in different spatial locations. To do this, the person associates the items with landmarks in some familiar place, which helps them recall the items later.
  86. Milieu Therapy
    A form of psychotherapy that involves the use of therapeutic communities. Patients join a group of around 30, for between 9 and 18 months. During their stay, patients are encouraged to take responsibility for themselves and the others within the unit
  87. MIMPI
    Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.
  88. Misinformation Effect
    a memory bias that occurs when misinformation affects people's reports of their own memory. example: Elizabeth Loftus's experiments with videos of car accidents, and suggestive words that elicited false memories of broken glass, smashed fronts of cars, etc.
  89. Motion parallax
    Motion parallax is a depth cue that results from our motion. As we move, objects that are closer to us move farther across our field of view than do objects that are in the distance.
  90. Narcissism
    A person with a narcissistic personality is totally centered on his or her own needs and feelings while ignoring the needs and feelings of others.
  91. Normative Social Influence
    One form of conformity. It is "the influence of other people that leads us to conform in order to be liked and accepted by them." This often leads to public compliance—but not necessarily private acceptance—of the group's social norms.
  92. Novelty Preference
    The Novelty Preference refers to the fact that infants are more likely to pay attention to new objects or people than those they've seen before. There's even an infant intelligence that is based on this concept and measures novelty preference. If an infant does not pay attention to a new or 'novel' object, there could be a problem that warrants further investigation.
  93. Obesity
    If the hypothalamus were to become disrupted or damaged, signals from your stomach may become misinterpreted, making one think they are hungry when they are not. The hypothalamus also responds to stress. In order for one to cope with large amounts of stress, the hypothalamus make you feel hungry.
  94. Opponent-process theory of emotions
    Proposed by Richard Solomon and John Corbit, this theory suggests that the experiencing of emotions disrupts the body's state of homeostasis and that emotions occur in basically opposite pairs—pleasure-pain, depression-elation, fear-relief, and so forth—and oppose one another so that homeostasis can once again be achieved. The theory suggests that the experiencing of one emotion of a pair prompts the onset of the other emotion (the opponent process) as well, which eventually reduces the intensity of the first emotion and finally cancels it out.
  95. Opponent-process theory of visual imaging
    A color theory that states that the human visual system interprets information about color by processing signals fromcones and rods in an antagonistic manner.
  96. Paradoxical sleep (REM?)
    During REM, the activity of the brain's neurons are quite similar to that during waking hours; for this reason, the REM-sleep stage may be called paradoxical sleep.
  97. Paresis
    A condition typified by partial loss of movement, or impaired movement.
  98. Major Perspectives in Psychology
    Biological, Developmental, Personality, Industrial, Cognitive, Humanistic, Behaviorism, Psychodynamic
  99. Phenylketonuria (PKU)
    An autosomal recessive genetic disorder which can cause problems with brain development, causing mental retardation.
  100. Phi Phenomenon
    A perceptual illusion in which a disembodied perception of motion is produced by a succession of still images. Confusingly, the term "phi phenomena" is used to refer to both phi phenomenon and beta movement, a related illusion. This results in phi phenomenon often being confused with beta movement.
  101. Phonemes vs. Morphemes
    • A morphene is the smallest unit of language that has meaning. For example Cats has two morphemes- cat (singular) and cats (plural). Uneventful has three morphemes. event, eventful, and uneventful. Each morpheme changes the meaning of the word.
    • A phoneme is the sound that can change the meaning of a word. For example cat and cut are two different words because they have two different phonemes, the sound "a" and the sound "u".
  102. Photoreceptors
    responsible for detecting light, and therefore enable us to see.
  103. Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
    Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, Formal Operational
  104. Pineal Gland
    A small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain. It produces the serotonin derivative melatonin, a hormone that affects the modulation of wake/sleep patterns and seasonal functions. Its shape resembles a tiny pine cone (hence its name), and it is located near the centre of the brain, between the two hemispheres, tucked in a groove where the two rounded thalamic bodies join.
  105. Premack principle
    States that more probable behaviors will reinforce less probable behaviors.
  106. Relex arc
    the neural pathway that mediates a reflex action
  107. Reliability vs validity in testing
    reliability=consistancy. validity=if it is applicable, if it works.
  108. Robert Rescorla's findings on conditioning
    To test this theory, psychologist Robert Rescorla undertook the following experiment.[2] Rats learned to associate a loud noise as the unconditioned stimulus, and a light as the conditioned stimulus. The response of the rats was to freeze and cease movement. What would happen then if the rats were habituated to the US? S–R theory would suggest that the rats would continue to respond to the CS, but if S–S theory is correct, they would be habituated to the concept of a loud sound (danger), and so would not freeze to the CS. The experimental results suggest that S–S was correct, as the rats no longer froze when exposed to the signal light. His theory still continues and is applied in everyday life
  109. Rods and Cones
    rods are responsible for vision at low light levels. They do no facilitate color vision, and they have low spatial acuity. cones are larger and help see color. they operate at a higher level of light.
  110. Schedules of Reinforcement
    Continuous, Fixed Ratio, Variable Ratio, Fixed Interval, Variable Interval
  111. Self-Efficacy
    A person's belief in their own competence.It has been defined as the belief that one is capable of performing in a certain manner to attain certain goals. Eduology focuses on factors that create a meaning for individuals. It is believed that our personalized ideas of self-efficacy affect our social interactions in almost every way. Understanding how to foster the development of self-efficacy is a vitally important goal for positive psychology because it can lead to living a more productive and happy life.
  112. Set Point
    a point that the body tries to keep things at, like body weight and temperature. see: homeostasis
  113. Social Cognitive Theory
    People learn by observing others, with the environment, behavior, and cognition all as the chief factors in influencing development. These three factors are not static or independent; rather, they are all reciprocal. For example, each behavior witnessed can change a person's way of thinking (cognition). Similarly, the environment one is raised in may influence later behaviors, just as a father's mindset (also cognition) will determine the environment in which his children are raise
  114. Social Facitlitation
    stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
  115. Social Loafing
    the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
  116. Social Trap
    A term used by psychologists to describe a situation in which a group of people act to obtain short-term individual gains, which in the long run leads to a loss for the group as a whole. Examples of social traps include overfishing, the near-extinction of the American bison, energy "brownout" and "blackout" power outages during periods of extreme temperatures, the overgrazing of cattle on the Sahelian Desert, and the destruction of the rainforest by logging interests and agriculture.
  117. Somatosensory Cortex
    A sensory system that detects experiences labelled as touch or pressure, temperature (warm or cold), pain (including itch and tickle), as well as proprioception, which is the sensations of muscle movement and joint position, including posture and movement.
  118. Stages of Learning
    Acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, stimulus generalization, discrimination.
  119. Stanley Milgram's experiment with obedience
    shocking- "the study requires that you continue"...
  120. Stanley Schachter's two factor theory
    States that emotion is a function of both cognitive factors and physiological arousal. According to the theory, "people search the immediate environment for emotionally relevant cues to label and interpret unexplained physiological arousal." Experiment with college students and epinephrine
  121. Tay-Sachs disease
    genetic disorder; The disease occurs when harmful quantities of a fatty acid derivative called a ganglioside accumulate in the nerve cells of the brain
  122. Thalamus
    relay station for sensory information to all other parts of the brain for further processing; EXCEPT SMELL
  123. Thyroid Gland
    controls how quickly the body burns energy, makes proteins, and how sensitive the body should be to other hormones
  124. Tourette's Syndrome
    an inherited neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by multiple physical (motor) tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic.
  125. Tragedy of the commons
    it may not be good for believe in everyone for himself; better if everyone works toward "common good"
  126. transduction
    According to Jean Piaget's theories on cognitive development, transductive reasoning is the primary form of reasoning used during the preoperational stage of development. This stage occurs approximately from the ages of 2-7. Transductive reasoning employs the following reasoning: "If A causes B today, then A always causes B."Transduction, in simpler terms, is the "reasoning" (making sense) of a stimulus.
  127. Turner's syndrome (X with missing chromosome)
    Instead of the normal XX sex chromosomes for a female, only one X chromosome is present and fully functional.
  128. Weber's Law
  129. Wernicke's aphasia
    inability to comprehend langauage and expression
  130. Zajonc's "Mere Exposure Effect"
    Concluded that evolution has hard-wired into us the tendency to bond with those who are familiar and to be wary of those who are unfamiliar.