Anatomy Exam II.txt
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Name the Vertebrae for the Canine
C7, T13, L7, S3, Cd 20-23
Name the Vertebrae for the Equine
C7, T18, L6, S5, Cd 15-21
Name the Vertebrae for the Bovine
C7, T13, L6, S5, Cd 18-20
What are the articulations of the alanto-occipital joint?
The two cranial articular fovea of the atlas and the occipital condyles of the skull
What is the anitclinical vertebrae in dogs? Equine? Bovine?
- T11- spinous process stands vertical. Any process cranial to T11 is pointing caudally and any process caudal to T11 is pointing cranially.
What adductor ligament in the pelvic limb does the horse have that the other species do not?
Accessory Ligament (prevents them from being able to kick sideways effectively)
- O- Ischiatic tuberosity and sacrotuberous ligament
- I- Patella, patellar ligament, tibia by means of the fascia lata, and tuber calcanei (forming the common calcaneal tendon)
- A- Extend hip, stifle, and hock. Flex the stifle
- O- Ischiatic Tuberosity
- I- tibial tuberosity anad tuber calcanei (Part of C. Calcanean tendon)
- A- extend hip, flex stifle, extend the hock
- O- The ischiatic tuberosity
- I- Medial Condyle of the tibia and the distal end of the femur
- A- Extend the hip and flex/extend the stifle depending on position
- O- Cranial-Crest of the ilium, Caudal- iliac spine
- I- Cranial- patella, Caudal- cranial border of the tibia
- A- To flex the hip, flex and extend the stifle
- *Arises from the symphysial tendon
- O- Pelvic symphysis
- I- Cranial border of the tibia and the tuber calcanei
- A- To adduct the limb, flex the stifle and extend the hip and hock
- O- Iliopubic eminence and the pubic tubercle via the prepubic tendon
- I- Distal end of the caudal face of the femur
- A- To adduct the limb
- O- Entire pelvic symphysis, ventral surface of pubis and ischium
- I- Entire lateral lip of the femur
- A- To adduct the limb and extend the hip
Name the 3 main components of the patellar locking mechanism and it's action
- 1) Quadriceps m.
- 2) Parapatellar Fibrocartilage
- 3) Medial Trochlear ridge of the femur
- A- Prevents flexion of the hip, stifle and hock AND overextension of the fetlock and phalangeal joints
Name the components of the Common Calcaneal Tendon in all species.
- 1) SDF
- 2) Gastrocnemius
- 3) Biceps Femoris
- 4) Semitendinosus
- 5) Gracilis (not in equine)
Name the components of the reciprocal apparatus
- Peronius Tertius and SDF
- A- moving the stifle and the hock together in either extension or flexion
If the peronius tertius is damaged, what will the pelvic limb do in the reciprocal apparatus?
Flexed stifle with extended tarsus
If the SDF is damaged, what will the pelvic limb do in the reciprocal apparatus?
Extended stifle with flexed tarsus
What are the main supporters of the fetlock and the phalangeal joints?
- The suspensory ligament and the SDF and DDF tendons
- * There are also extensor branches of the suspensory ligament
The weight of the equine is mainly placed on what when using the stay apparatus?
The head of the femur
Name the three stifle joint sacs/synovial compartments:
Femoropatellar sac, medial femorotibial, lateral femorotibial
Bursas of the Equine pelvic limb
- 1. Trochanteric Bursa
- 2. Synovial Bursa of the greater trochanter
- 3. Cunean Bursa
- 4. Subtendinous calcanean bursa (intertendinous and gastrocnemius)
- 5. Subcutaneous calcanean bursa
- 6. Extensor Bursa
Borders of the femoral triangle in the canine:
Caudal belly of the sartorial, pectinous and adductor (caudal border), iliopsoas and vastus medialis
Define Bone Spavin:
Osteoarthritis or osteitis of the hock joint which causes lameness
Distal Intermediate Ridge of the Tibia- #1 site for osteochondrosis in the horse
Which bone is NOT fused in the bovine but is in the equine hock joint?
The medial malleolus
Tensor Fascia Latae
- O-Tuber coxae and ilium
- I- Lateral femoral fascia
- A- Flex hip and extend the stifle…and tense the lateral femoral fascia
- O- The lateral border of the sacrum and first caudal vertebra
- I- Third trochanter
- A- To extend the hip and abduct the limb
- O- The crest and gluteal surface of the ilium
- I- The greater trochanter
- A- To extend and abduct the hip and to rotate the pelvic limb medially
- O- Body of the ilium, ischiatic spine
- I- Cranial aspect of the greater trochanter
- A- To extend and abduct the hip and to rotate to pelvic limb medially
- O- The symphysis pelvis and the dorsal surface of the ischium and pubis
- I- Trochanteric fossa of the femur
- A- To rotate the pelvic limb laterally
- O- Lateral surface of the ischium
- I- Trochanteric fossa
- A- To rotate the limb laterally at the hip
- O- Ischium
- I- Intertrochanteric crest
- A- Extend the hip and rotate the pelvic limb laterally
- O- Ventral surface of pubis and ischium
- I- Trochanteric Fossa
- A- Rotate the pelvic limb laterally
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