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- -President Andrew Jackson required for the confederate states to abolish slavery in their states in order to be readmitted back into the union.
- -reconstruction act of 1867
Reconstruction Act of 1867:
part of Congressional Reconstruction, disfranchised former Confederate leaders, divided confederate states, except Tenn., into 5 military districts under Union army commanders; required the election a constitutional convention, through political representation; majorityof state’s voters are to approve the new constitution & ratify the 14th Amendment; franchised Blacks in the District of Columbia &extended term of the Freedman’s Bureau
- -Jan 31, 1865
- -Abolished slavery in all of the Union states
Civil Rights Act (CRA) of 1866
- -April 9, 1866
- -Gave blacks the same rights as whites except for the rignt to vote
- -forbide discriminatory laws by states
- -defined citizenship by the federal government
- -gave blacks the right to enter into contacts, to sue, togive evidence in court and to own property.
- -June 13, 1866
- -made civil rights legislation permanent
- -due process
- -guranteed blacks equal protection under law
- -Feb. 26, 1868
- -prohibited states from denying citizens the right to vote based on religion, race or color (only males).
- -states were allowed to set forth other qualifications for voters.
Civil Rights Act of 1971 (CRA)
- -Feb 28, 1871
- -also known as the “Ku Klux
- Klan Act”, outlawed wearing disguises upon public highways or in another person’s home for the purposes of depriving them of equal
- protection of the laws;
- -empowered federal courts to oversee &
- supervise elections; became a federal crime to interfere with their work;
- -embattled federal courts to combat any attempt to violently curtail the exercise of constitutional rights
CRA of 1875
- -March 1, 1975
- -entitled all persons within the
- US jurisdiction to full enjoyment of the accommodations, advantages,& privileges of inns, public conveyances on land or water;theaters, and other places of public entertainment regardless of
- race, color, or condition of previous servitude
- -Est. by Congress in 1865
- -AKA the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned lands
- -purpose was to give aid former slaves and white refugees
- -Provided food, clothing, supplies, job placement, education and homestead land to people
- -directed by Gen. Olive O. Howard
- -disbanded by congress in 1872
Historically Black Colleges and Universities Est. during Reconstrustion
- -Fisk- Tennessee
- -Tougaloo- Alabama
- -Lincoln institute-
- -Shaw University
- -Rust- Mississippi
- -St. Augustine's-NC
- -St. Paul's Virginia
Southern Homestead Act
- -1866 est. by Congress as an attempt to provide land for the freedman passage
- -set aside land for black people and white southerns
- -land was unsuitable for farming
- -many lacked the finacial resources to keep up
- -Act ended up failing
American Missionary Association
- -abolistionist and congregationist
- -worked with the freedman bureau to help est. historically black colleges and universities
- 1) Slavery was replaced by a system of compulsory “paid” Black labor
- 2) The Freedman’s Bureau played a critical role in this new Black exploitation system
- 3) Black avenues of escape were blocked in at least 2 ways
- a. orthern concerns & racial discrimination
- b. Ex-slaves’ lack of capital for buying land & developing homesteads
- 4) The North needed Southern made cotton products as much as the South
- 5) Labor shortages in the North were filled by 10s of millions of European immigrants
- 6) Millions of acres of public land were given to European settlers, railroads, and private interests, Not to Ex-Slaves!!!
- -State laws regulating the activities of Blacks in the south after the Civil War;
- -key objective was control Black labor outside of the plantation system
- -Varied from state to state
- -Some forbade Blacks from owning land, or carrying fire arms
- -Required written proof of employment for the coming year; due each January
- -Wages forfeited if employee left job end of a contract
- -Blacks could not rent urban land
- -Vagrancy punished by fines or involuntary labor on plantations
- -Punishments for insulting whites, preaching the Gospel w/o a license
South Carolina Codes
- -Blacks from working in nonagricultural jobs…violators paid $100 annual tax
- -Required signing annual employment contracts specifying the hours of work; employees could not leave plantation w/o permission…Traveling circus performers & fortune tellers could be charged w/vagrancy & forced to work on plantations free
4 Ways to Lack Integrity
- 1) Opportunist
- 3) Camille
- 4) Self-decieved
- adopts values for gain and benefits.
- ex. Donald Trump running for president
- private set of values are different from theirpublic values.
- -biggest hypocrit-U.S, Founding Fathers, Lincoln, Thomas Jefferson
-person doesn't have value of own, adopt to one of society change as society does.
one who actually believes that they are motivated by a set of values, but are really motivated by a seperate set of values
Basic form of integrity
-what you say & think and do are consistant.
when you work for someone, they give you a piece of land to honest. You get a percentage of the sale from harvest. Usually didn't get paid till after the crops have harvested.
- democrats wanted southern states restored to conservative, whit political control.
- -1875 regained control of MS,FL, LA, SC
- -republican leaders murdered( black & white)
Election Day Eufaula, Alabama
- -whitered men killed 7 and injuried 70 black voters.
- -democrats won the election
Shot Gun Policy
- violent campagin unleashed by mississippi
- -declared open warefare on the black majority
- -small mostly black town
- -was a key event of South Carolina Reconstruction. Beginning with a dispute over free passage on a public road, this racially motivated incident concluded with the death of seven men. It launched the furious 1876 Democratic campaign for South Carolina's
- “Redemption,” inaugurating single-party white supremacist rule, and leading to nearly a century of "Jim Crow" denial of civil rights
- -led to the shot gun policy by the democrats
Compromise of 1877
originated with an minstrel show routine called "jump jim crow" that a white performer, thomas 'daddy' rice.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
- -1892 homer Plessy brought a 1st class ticket & attempted to ride on the coach designated for white people
- -arrested 4 violating new segregation law.
- -ruled against Plessy & upheld LA segregation law.
- -raised $6,000, & hired a ship to take black people to liberia.
- -ended up experiencing hardship and couldn't pay for future trips.
- -black people that headed west and moved to kansas
- to enjoy all of the rights guaranteed by law.
- -5 men founded kansas town-Nicodemusn
- -founded Langston, Oklahoma
- businesses and planters leased convicts from state to build railroads, clear swamps, cut timber, tend cotton, and work mines.
- -ended becoming outlawed
-name given to black soldiers who indured harse conditons by the indians.
- -worst example of hostility of black troops in texas
- -august 14, 1906
- 150 shots rang out, 1 man dead, others injured
- -President Roosevelt dismissed 3 companies of black men with no pension or benefits
- -tended to animals
- -rode with indians, mexicans, and whites
- -rode on horses
- -were discriminated against
Washington Co. Riot
- -1886 texas
- -democrats tried to seize ballot boxes
- -armed black men resisted, shot one of the white men and they were arrested
- -they broke into the jail and kidnapped 3 of the men and lynched them
- -black man got 25yrs, while white guys who lynched got off and their was no investigation done.
- -white republican urged black men to fil out affidivit if they were not permitted to vote.
- -provoked confrontation w/ democrat.
- -shots were fired, repub. wounded.
- -rampage through greenwood county, black men killed
- -Wilmington, NC
- -Alex Manly- black newspaper writer, wrote an article about white
- -white mob destroyed newspaper office
- -black & white republicans resigned, blacks fled wilmigton
- whites brought up their homes
News Orleans Riot
- Robert Charles were harassed by white police officers
- -both pulled out gun, shot each other. Charles escaped to hide
- -found, then engaged in shot-out with over 20,000.
- -ended up getting burned out and his body stomped on to death
1870-first AA to serve in US senate
- -author, suffarist, abolistionist,salesman
- -escaped slavery by pretending to be sailor
- -wrote autobiography-"Narractive of the Live of Fredrick Douglas,an american slave"
- -author of "North Start"
- -president of reconstruction era
- -1st AA to run for president
Booker T. Washington
- -speech at Cotton states international convention
- -borned into slavery
- -sucessor to Douglas
- -amoung 1st AA nationalist
- -traveled around world lecturing slavery
- -born into slavery
- -sues railroad
- -her writings were the official 1st writings of lynching
- one of the many teachers who migrated to the south after civil war to instruct freed people
Charlotte E. Ray
- 1st AA woman to earn a law degree.
- -1st AA admitted to the practice of law in Wash. DC
- born slave in SC
- -reconstruction leader
- -served on senate
- -not the usually black rigths leader
- -used violence in his protests
The Gibbs Brothers
- -black leaders during the reconstruction
- -Mifflin Gibbsonly AA in 19th century elected to 2 political office in 2 nations.
- *est. 1st black newspaper in CA, "The mirror of the times"
The rollin Sisters
- -organized women's rights convention in columbia
- -rallied for woman rights
- -lieutenant in SC militia
- -appealed for aid to protect the republicans and black communities in "An Appeal for help Against the Klan"
Johnson C. Whittaker
- -was a cadet
- -covicted of of conduct overbecoming an officer and lying, was found bloody and was said to have mutilated himself.
- -1st black movie stars
- -"The Bull-Dogger"
Maggie Lena Walker
- -1 of the wealthiest balck women in US
- -business woman, community leader
- -Grand Matron of the Order of St. Luke
- -1st black chief exective of an bank
- -"The entertainer"
Thomas E. miller
- 1st president of the Colored Normal, Industrial, Agricultral, and Mechanical College of South Carolina
- -address to the Bamberg County Colored Fair
- -AKA Madame C.J. Walker
- -developed formula to enrich the hair of black women
white northerns who moved to the south in the wake of the war
-native white southerners, small farmers, in regions of the south who hoped for economic relief from republican governments.
served 1 month as governor in LA after white govenor was removed from office
1st black man to serve in the US house of representatives during the reconstruction