AFS final Exam

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  1. Presidential Reconstruction
    • -1865-1867
    • -President Andrew Jackson required for the confederate states to abolish slavery in their states in order to be readmitted back into the union.
  2. Congressional Reconstruction
    • -1867-1877
    • -reconstruction act of 1867
  3. Reconstruction Act of 1867:
    part of Congressional Reconstruction, disfranchised former Confederate leaders, divided confederate states, except Tenn., into 5 military districts under Union army commanders; required the election a constitutional convention, through political representation; majorityof state’s voters are to approve the new constitution & ratify the 14th Amendment; franchised Blacks in the District of Columbia &extended term of the Freedman’s Bureau
  4. 13th Amendment
    • -Jan 31, 1865
    • -Abolished slavery in all of the Union states
  5. Civil Rights Act (CRA) of 1866
    • -April 9, 1866
    • -Gave blacks the same rights as whites except for the rignt to vote
    • -forbide discriminatory laws by states
    • -defined citizenship by the federal government
    • -gave blacks the right to enter into contacts, to sue, togive evidence in court and to own property.
  6. 14th Amendment
    • -June 13, 1866
    • -made civil rights legislation permanent
    • -due process
    • -guranteed blacks equal protection under law
  7. 15th Amendment
    • -Feb. 26, 1868
    • -prohibited states from denying citizens the right to vote based on religion, race or color (only males).
    • -states were allowed to set forth other qualifications for voters.
  8. Civil Rights Act of 1971 (CRA)
    • -Feb 28, 1871
    • -also known as the “Ku Klux
    • Klan Act”, outlawed wearing disguises upon public highways or in another person’s home for the purposes of depriving them of equal
    • protection of the laws;
    • -empowered federal courts to oversee &
    • supervise elections; became a federal crime to interfere with their work;
    • -embattled federal courts to combat any attempt to violently curtail the exercise of constitutional rights
  9. CRA of 1875
    • -March 1, 1975
    • -entitled all persons within the
    • US jurisdiction to full enjoyment of the accommodations, advantages,& privileges of inns, public conveyances on land or water;theaters, and other places of public entertainment regardless of
    • race, color, or condition of previous servitude
  10. Freedman's Bureau
    • -Est. by Congress in 1865
    • -AKA the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned lands
    • -purpose was to give aid former slaves and white refugees
    • -Provided food, clothing, supplies, job placement, education and homestead land to people
    • -directed by Gen. Olive O. Howard
    • -disbanded by congress in 1872
  11. Historically Black Colleges and Universities Est. during Reconstrustion
    • -Fisk- Tennessee
    • -Hampton-Virginia
    • -Tougaloo- Alabama
    • -Avery-SC
    • -Lincoln institute-
    • -Shaw University
    • -Benedict-SC
    • -Morehouse-GA
    • -Clafin-SC
    • -Rust- Mississippi
    • -Bennett-NC
    • -St. Augustine's-NC
    • -St. Paul's Virginia
  12. Southern Homestead Act
    • -1866 est. by Congress as an attempt to provide land for the freedman passage
    • -set aside land for black people and white southerns
    • -land was unsuitable for farming
    • -many lacked the finacial resources to keep up
    • -Act ended up failing
  13. American Missionary Association
    • -abolistionist and congregationist
    • -worked with the freedman bureau to help est. historically black colleges and universities
  14. Steinberg's Thesis
    • 1) Slavery was replaced by a system of compulsory “paid” Black labor
    • 2) The Freedman’s Bureau played a critical role in this new Black exploitation system
    • 3) Black avenues of escape were blocked in at least 2 ways
    • a. orthern concerns & racial discrimination
    • b. Ex-slaves’ lack of capital for buying land & developing homesteads
    • 4) The North needed Southern made cotton products as much as the South
    • 5) Labor shortages in the North were filled by 10s of millions of European immigrants
    • 6) Millions of acres of public land were given to European settlers, railroads, and private interests, Not to Ex-Slaves!!!
  15. Black Codes
    • -State laws regulating the activities of Blacks in the south after the Civil War;
    • -key objective was control Black labor outside of the plantation system
    • -Varied from state to state
    • -Some forbade Blacks from owning land, or carrying fire arms
  16. Mississippi Codes
    • -Required written proof of employment for the coming year; due each January
    • -Wages forfeited if employee left job end of a contract
    • -Blacks could not rent urban land
    • -Vagrancy punished by fines or involuntary labor on plantations
    • -Punishments for insulting whites, preaching the Gospel w/o a license
  17. South Carolina Codes
    • -Blacks from working in nonagricultural jobs…violators paid $100 annual tax
    • -Required signing annual employment contracts specifying the hours of work; employees could not leave plantation w/o permission…Traveling circus performers & fortune tellers could be charged w/vagrancy & forced to work on plantations free
  18. 4 Ways to Lack Integrity
    • 1) Opportunist
    • 2)Hypocrit
    • 3) Camille
    • 4) Self-decieved
  19. Opportunist
    • adopts values for gain and benefits.
    • ex. Donald Trump running for president
  20. Hypocrit
    • private set of values are different from theirpublic values.
    • -biggest hypocrit-U.S, Founding Fathers, Lincoln, Thomas Jefferson
  21. Camille
    -person doesn't have value of own, adopt to one of society change as society does.
  22. Self-Decieved
    one who actually believes that they are motivated by a set of values, but are really motivated by a seperate set of values
  23. Basic form of integrity
    -what you say & think and do are consistant.
  24. Sharecropper
    when you work for someone, they give you a piece of land to honest. You get a percentage of the sale from harvest. Usually didn't get paid till after the crops have harvested.
  25. "Redemption"
    • democrats wanted southern states restored to conservative, whit political control.
    • -1875 regained control of MS,FL, LA, SC
    • -republican leaders murdered( black & white)
  26. Election Day Eufaula, Alabama
    • -1874
    • -whitered men killed 7 and injuried 70 black voters.
    • -democrats won the election
  27. Shot Gun Policy
    • violent campagin unleashed by mississippi
    • -declared open warefare on the black majority
  28. Hamburg Massacre
    • -small mostly black town
    • -was a key event of South Carolina Reconstruction. Beginning with a dispute over free passage on a public road, this racially motivated incident concluded with the death of seven men. It launched the furious 1876 Democratic campaign for South Carolina's
    • “Redemption,” inaugurating single-party white supremacist rule, and leading to nearly a century of "Jim Crow" denial of civil rights
    • -led to the shot gun policy by the democrats
  29. Compromise of 1877
    ended reconstruction
  30. Jim Crow
    originated with an minstrel show routine called "jump jim crow" that a white performer, thomas 'daddy' rice.
  31. Plessy vs. Ferguson
    • -1892 homer Plessy brought a 1st class ticket & attempted to ride on the coach designated for white people
    • -arrested 4 violating new segregation law.
    • -ruled against Plessy & upheld LA segregation law.
  32. Liberian Exodus
    • -raised $6,000, & hired a ship to take black people to liberia.
    • -ended up experiencing hardship and couldn't pay for future trips.
  33. Exodusters
    • -1865-1880
    • -black people that headed west and moved to kansas
    • to enjoy all of the rights guaranteed by law.
    • -5 men founded kansas town-Nicodemusn
    • -founded Langston, Oklahoma
  34. Convict-Lease System
    • businesses and planters leased convicts from state to build railroads, clear swamps, cut timber, tend cotton, and work mines.
    • -ended becoming outlawed
  35. Buffaloe Soldiers
    -name given to black soldiers who indured harse conditons by the indians.
  36. Brownville Affair
    • -worst example of hostility of black troops in texas
    • -august 14, 1906
    • 150 shots rang out, 1 man dead, others injured
    • -President Roosevelt dismissed 3 companies of black men with no pension or benefits
  37. Black Cowboys
    • -tended to animals
    • -rode with indians, mexicans, and whites
    • -rode on horses
    • -were discriminated against
  38. Washington Co. Riot
    • -1886 texas
    • -democrats tried to seize ballot boxes
    • -armed black men resisted, shot one of the white men and they were arrested
    • -they broke into the jail and kidnapped 3 of the men and lynched them
    • -black man got 25yrs, while white guys who lynched got off and their was no investigation done.
  39. Phoneix Riot
    • -SC-1898
    • -white republican urged black men to fil out affidivit if they were not permitted to vote.
    • -provoked confrontation w/ democrat.
    • -shots were fired, repub. wounded.
    • -rampage through greenwood county, black men killed
  40. Wilmington Riot
    • -Wilmington, NC
    • -Alex Manly- black newspaper writer, wrote an article about white
    • -white mob destroyed newspaper office
    • -black & white republicans resigned, blacks fled wilmigton
    • whites brought up their homes
  41. News Orleans Riot
    • Robert Charles were harassed by white police officers
    • -both pulled out gun, shot each other. Charles escaped to hide
    • -found, then engaged in shot-out with over 20,000.
    • -ended up getting burned out and his body stomped on to death
  42. Hiram Revels
    1870-first AA to serve in US senate
  43. Rainey
  44. Fredrick Douglas
    • -author, suffarist, abolistionist,salesman
    • -escaped slavery by pretending to be sailor
    • -wrote autobiography-"Narractive of the Live of Fredrick Douglas,an american slave"
    • -author of "North Start"
    • -president of reconstruction era
    • -1st AA to run for president
  45. Booker T. Washington
    • -speech at Cotton states international convention
    • -borned into slavery
    • -sucessor to Douglas
  46. Sojourner Truth
    • -amoung 1st AA nationalist
    • -traveled around world lecturing slavery
    • -abolistionist
    • -
  47. Ida B.Wells-Barnett
    • -born into slavery
    • -sues railroad
    • -her writings were the official 1st writings of lynching
  48. Charlotte Forten
    • one of the many teachers who migrated to the south after civil war to instruct freed people
    • -1862-1864
  49. Charlotte E. Ray
    • 1st AA woman to earn a law degree.
    • -1st AA admitted to the practice of law in Wash. DC
  50. Aaron Bradley
    • born slave in SC
    • -reconstruction leader
    • -served on senate
    • -not the usually black rigths leader
    • -used violence in his protests
  51. The Gibbs Brothers
    • -black leaders during the reconstruction
    • -Mifflin Gibbsonly AA in 19th century elected to 2 political office in 2 nations.
    • *est. 1st black newspaper in CA, "The mirror of the times"
  52. The rollin Sisters
    • -organized women's rights convention in columbia
    • -rallied for woman rights
  53. H.K. Roberts
    • -lieutenant in SC militia
    • -appealed for aid to protect the republicans and black communities in "An Appeal for help Against the Klan"
  54. Johnson C. Whittaker
    • -was a cadet
    • -covicted of of conduct overbecoming an officer and lying, was found bloody and was said to have mutilated himself.
    • -
  55. Bill Pickett
    • -cowboy
    • -1st black movie stars
    • -"The Bull-Dogger"
  56. Maggie Lena Walker
    • -1 of the wealthiest balck women in US
    • -business woman, community leader
    • -Grand Matron of the Order of St. Luke
    • -1st black chief exective of an bank
  57. Scott Joplin
    • -composer
    • -ragtime
    • -"The entertainer"
  58. Thomas E. miller
    • 1st president of the Colored Normal, Industrial, Agricultral, and Mechanical College of South Carolina
    • -address to the Bamberg County Colored Fair
  59. Sarah Breedlove
    • -AKA Madame C.J. Walker
    • -developed formula to enrich the hair of black women
  60. Carpetbaggers
    white northerns who moved to the south in the wake of the war
  61. Scalawags
    -native white southerners, small farmers, in regions of the south who hoped for economic relief from republican governments.
  62. P.B.S Pinchback
    served 1 month as governor in LA after white govenor was removed from office
  63. Joseph Rainey
    1st black man to serve in the US house of representatives during the reconstruction
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AFS final Exam
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