Nutrition dietary supplements essay

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Nutrition dietary supplements essay
2011-05-02 10:35:34
nutrition dietary supplements

nutrition dietary supplements
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  1. Caffeine
    • What: stimulant to increase endurance and muscle excitability
    • RDA: 40-150 mg per day
    • Research: Kovacs et al, 1998
    • 15 cyclists; 3mg caffeine per kg bodyweight in a CHO-electrolyte drink; cycle time trial; those who took the caffeine complete the task quicker
    • Conclusion: low amounts of caffeine can improve exercise performance
  2. Creatine
    • What: a high energy phosphate found in meat and muscle. used to increase anaerobic capacity,
    • muscular power, hydration, and lean body mass
    • RDA: 20 g per day needed to increase muscle
    • Research: Casey et al, 1996
    • 20 g of creatine for 5 days; 2x30seconds max cycling; ATP loss was 30% less with creatine in spite of performing better.
    • Cons: some people do not respond to it, and it increases body mass which may not be good for certain athletes (distance)
  3. Glycerol
    • What: the backbone of triacylglycerol; increases hydration
    • RDA: 1g/kg/bw mixed with 1.5-2 litres of water
    • Research: Anderson et al, 2001
    • using above mixture 2 hours before exercise;
    • urine output: less urine output
    • core temp: lower core temp
    • work in the heat: able to perform more work in the heat
    • Cons: it gives some people headaches
  4. Sodium Bicarbonate
    • What: a buffer present in the blood; buffers lactic acid
    • RDA: 0.3g/kg/bw per day
    • Research: Bishop et al, 2004
    • 5x6 seconds of cycle sprints, with 30 seconds recovery; sodium bicarbonate is beneficial for short spurts of exercise (1-7 minutes)
  5. Vitamin C
    • What: water soluble micronutrient found in fruits and veggies; may increase immune system and decrease likelihood of infection.
    • RDA: 60 mg
    • Research: Peters et al, 1993
    • 600 mg suplements, 1139mg total per day for 10 days. URTI symptoms were recorded after 90km race.
    • Results: 35% who took vit c had URTI symptoms 2 weeks after the race; 68% who took placebo had URTI symptoms 2 weeks after race
    • Cons: subjects were given 20-30 times the RDA
  6. Glucosamine
    • What: a natural component found in cartilage used to decrease joint pain
    • RDA: 1500-2500 mg per day
    • Research: Braham et al, 2003
    • 2 grams a day for 2 weeks; especially in week 8 much difference in knee pain between experiment and placebo group
    • Cons: Glucosamine takes a long time to have any effect (between 4-8 weeks)
  7. Glutamine
    • What: an immune cell energy substrate that becomes lowered with prolonged exercise; supplements allow immune systems to not be as low
    • RDA:
    • Research: Castell et al, 1996
    • URTI symptoms 7 days after a marathon; glutamine ingesters: 20 out of 72 had symptoms; placebo ingesters: 50 out of 79 had symptoms
  8. Probiotics
    • What: such as lactobacillus acidophilus can be found in yogurt; used to improve immune function and decrease infection by increasing gut microflora
    • RDA:
    • Research: Gleeson et al, 2011
    • 16 weeks; 58 athletes: 90% who had placebo had 1 or more URTI episodes; 65% given probiotics had 1 or more URTI episodes