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2011-05-02 10:38:33


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      1. Colloid-filled follicles of the Thyroid
      2. Follicle cells
      • Thyroxin - is release in two forms: Thyroxin (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3) which regulates metabolism and cell growth.

      → Although about 20 times more T4 is released than T3, T4 is essentially impotent because it binds so strongly to plasma globulins for transport in the blood that it is not taken into target tissues, and when it does, it is usually converted to T3.

      → Thyroxin (T4) has 4 iodine atoms and Triiodothyronine (T3) has 3. TH increases the body’s rate of metabolism.

      • Calcitonin increases calcium storage in bone, lowering blood Ca++ levels. It opposes PTH (from the Parathyroid glands (generally 2 per lobe of the thyroid and embedded on the posterior surface), which has the opposite effect: decreases calcium storage in bone, raising blood Ca++ levels.
      1. Exocrine (acinar tissue of the Pancreas
      2. Alpha cells – secrete glucagon
      3. Beta cells – secrete insulin
      • Alpha cells secrete Glucagon, which causes hepatocytes to convert stored glycogen to glucose for release into the blood. It also stimulates glycogenolysis which is the hydrolysis of glycogen to glucose-6-phosphate or glucose.
      • Beta cells secrete Insulin, which promotes metabolism within cells and takes glucose out of the blood to do so. It also stimulates glycogenesis the anabolic formation of glycogen from glucose or other Monosaccharides.
      • Delta cells secrete Somatostatin (SS), which regulates food absorption.
      1. Zona glomerulosa of Cortex of Adrenal
      2. Zona Fasciculata
      3. Zona Reticularis
      4. Medulla cells
    • The “suprarenal” glands have an outer cortex of 3 layers and an inner medulla (which is physiologically a different gland).

    → There is no communication between them.

    • Deep to the outer capsule are these 3 layers:
      • Zona Glomerulosa - secretes Aldosterone which targets kidneys to Stimulate kidney tubules to conserve sodium, which in turn triggers the release of ADH and the resulting conservation of water by the kidney.
      • Zona Fasciculata - secretes GLUCOCORTICOIDS. (Cortisol, cortisone). Increases blood glucose levels, stimulates gluconeogenesis, help regulate blood pressure, anti-inflammatory, increase during stress.
      • Zona Reticularis - secretes GONADOCORTICOIDS:Adrenal androgens and estrogens which target Sex organs, other effectors: Exact role of androgens uncertain but may support sexual function. Estrogens are thought to be insignificant.
      • ALDOSTERONE. Increase blood sodium levels, decrease blood potassium levels, decrease urine volume.
      • ADRENA MEDULLA secretes EPINEPHRINE. Enhance and prolong sympathetic effects & NOREPINEPHRINE. Enhance and prolong sympathetic effects.
      1. Head with acrosome of Sperm
      2. Midpiece
      3. Tail
      1. Medulla of Ovary
      2. Primary follicle
      3. Oocyte
      4. Granulosa cells
      5. Cortex of ovary
      6. Antrum of vesicular (Graafian) follicle
      7. Germinal epithelium
      1. Lumen of Esophagus
      2. Stratified Squamous Epithelium
      1. Stratified Squamous Epithelium of Esophagus
      2. Simple Columnar Epithelium of stomach
      1. Peyer’s patch of the ileum (distal portion of the small intestine after duodenum & jejunum). These are lymphoid nodules found in the submucosal increase along the length of the small intestine.
      2. Villi of mucosa composed of simple columnar epithelium with a brush border.
      3. Muscularis Externa
      1. Renal tubules of cortex
      2. Lumen of glomerular capsule
      3. Glomeruli
      1. Cuboidal epithelium of renal tubule
      2. Lumen of glomerular capsule
      3. Glomerulus (glomeruli = plural)
      4. Juxtaglomerular cells
      5. Parietal layer of the glomerular capsule
  2. Thymus Gland
      • In superior thorax, posterior to sternum and anterior to heart and lungs.
      • THYMOSIN. Stimulate development of T lymphocytes and immune system.
  3. Heart
      • ATRIAL NATRIURETIC HORMONE. Increase kidney output of sodium and water decrease blood pressure.