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2011-05-02 10:41:09


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      1. Circular (smooth) Muscle of Ureter
      2. Longitudinal smooth muscle
      3. Transitional epithelium
      4. Adventitia (outer layer of veins, arteries, lymph and other vessels)
      1. Lumen of Large Intestine (Rectum?)
      2. Abundant Goblet calls
      3. Lamina Propria
      4. Muscularis mucosae
      5. Submucosa
      1. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium of the Epididymis
      2. Spermatozoa
      1. Triad Region of a liver lobule
        • interlobular bile duct - flows from central vein out
        • Interlobular portal vein - flows to central vein
        • Interlobular artery - flows to central vein
      2. Central Vein
      3. Lobule
      1. Spermatogenic cells in Seminiferous Tube wall
      2. Immature sperm in lumen
      1. Serosa of Uterine tube
      2. Smooth Muscle
      3. Highly folded mucosa
      4. Lumen
      1. Infundibulum
      2. Hypophyseal Portal System
      3. Anterior Pituitary or Adenohypophysis
        • TSH – thyroid stimulating hormone
        • FSH – FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Female: stimulates ovarian follicle development; stimulates secretion of estrogen from developing follicles. Male: stimulates spermatogenesis.
        • LH – LUTEINIZING HORMONE. Female: stimulates ovulation, development of corpus luteum, and corpus luteum secretion of estrogen and progesterone. Male: stimulates secretion of testosterone from interstitial cells of testes.
        • ACTH – adrenocorticotropic hormone
        • GH – GROWTH HORMONE. Promote growth, protein anabolism, hyperglycemic.
        • PRL – Prolactin stimulates milk production and secretion.
        • MELANOCYTE SIMULATING HORMONE. Stimulates melanin production
      4. Posterior Pituitary or Neurohypophysis
        • Oxytocin – uterine contractions (birth & coitus), as well as milk ejection
        • ADH – antidiuretic hormone increases kidney water reabsorption to the effect of decreased urine output.
      1. Pineal – major endocrine product: melatonin, diurnal cycle, peaking at night making us drowsy. Other functions controversial.
      1. Parotid – amylase laden saliva only – no mucus - only for starch digestion.
      2. Sublingual – mucus only
      3. Submandibular – amylase & mucus
  2. Placenta
      • HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Maintenance of corpus luteum during pregnancy and secretion of estrogen and progesterone.
  3. Together they function in producing semen, an alkaline fluid for sperm.
    Male reproductive accessory glands
  4. Paired sac shaped glands on posterior bladder (produce 60% of semen).
    Seminal vesicles
  5. Doughnut shaped gland below bladder, urethra passes through it (produce 30%of semen).
  6. Paired pea shaped glands (produce 5% of semen). Located at the superior posterior end of the penis (on either side of the “bulb”)
    Bulbourethral glands( Cowper’s glands)
  7. Ascending from scrotum it encloses the ductus deferens as well as blood vessels and nerves.
    Spermatic cord
  8. Skin covered pouch divided into two compartments. Contain testes, epididymis and lower part of spermatic cord. Allow for spermatogenesis to occur at a temperature about 2 to 3 degrees lower than body temperature.
      • Ovaries
      • Oviducts
      • Uterus
      • Vagina
      • External genitals
      • Mammary glands
  10. Functions of the ovary?
      • Produce ova
      • Ovulation of ovum
      • Secretion of estrogen and progesterone.
  11. Phases of the menstrual cycle:
      • Menstrual
      • Postmenstrual
      • Ovulation
      • Premenstrual
      • Days 1-5
      • Decreased levels of estrogen and progesterone cause uterine arteries to constrict.
      • Ischemic blood flow causes endometrial lining to slough off.
      • Increased levels of FSH stimulate development of primary follicles.
      • Also called PROLIFERATIVE PHASE
      • Days 6-13.
      • Developing follicles secrete estrogen which inhibits FSH secretion from anterior pituitary. The estrogen stimulates development of endometrial glands and blood vessels.
      • Normally one of the developing follicles will mature into a Graafian follicle, which contains an ovum. The Graafian follicle will bulge on ovary surface.
      • At day 13 the anterior pituitary secretes LH causing a LH surge in blood.
      • Day 14.
      • The LH surge triggers rupture of Graafian follicle and release of ovum from ovary.
      • A corpus luteum forms on ovary surface.
      • Also called SECRETORY PHASE
      • Days 15-28.
      • Corpus luteum secretes estrogen and progesterone.
      • Estrogen and progesterone cause endometrium to thicken and secrete glycogen. If fertilization has not occurred the corpus luteum decreases secretion of estrogen and progesterone and degenerates into a corpus albicans. The decreased levels of estrogen and progesterone initiate
      • another menstrual phase.
      • If fertilization has occurred and an embryo has formed the corpus luteum remains on the ovary and continues to secrete estrogen and progesterone.
  16. First menstrual flow?
  17. Termination of menstrual cycle?
  18. Painful menstruation?
  19. Absence of normal menstruation?
  20. Characteristics of ovulated ovum:
    • Covered by clear coat of glycoprotein called Zona pellucida and
    • Cells from the ovarian follicle called corona radiate.
  21. Characteristics of Oviducts (Fallopian or uterine tubes):
    Two muscular tubes 10 cm. in length, lined with ciliated columnar epithelium. Extend laterally from the uterus toward the ovaries. Each oviduct terminates in a funnel shaped infundibulum fringed with finger-like fimbriae.
  22. Characteristics of the Uterus:
      • In the pelvic cavity between urinary bladder and rectum.
      • Upper dome shaped fundus
      • A narrow cervix which opens into the vagina.
      • Wall of uterus is made up of three layers, inner endometrium, middle myometrium (smooth muscle) and outer Perimetrium (parietal peritoneum).
  23. External genitals (vulva):
      • Labia majora
      • Labia minora
      • Clitoris
      • Urethral orifice
      • Vaginal orifice
  24. Skin covered region between the vaginal orifice and anus?
  25. A surgical procedure used during birth to prevent laceration of perineum.
  26. Functions of Endometrium:
    Undergoes menstrual changes and is sloughed off during menstruation. The endometrium is also site of implantation, formation of placenta and embryo development.
  27. Lining of Vagina:
    Smooth muscle lined with stratified squamous epithelium.
  28. Characteristics of Mammary glands:
      • Lie over pectoral muscles
      • Consist of glandular lobules, ducts and adipose tissue.
      • The lobules function in production of milk and a system of lactiferous ducts carries the milk to the nipple. Function in lactation.
  29. It consists of three cylinders of vascular erectile tissue that engorge with blood upon sexual arousal. The two dorsal corpora cavernosa and the ventral corpus spongiosum which encloses the urethra. The distal end of the corpus spongiosum enlarges to form the glans penis. The glans penis is covered by the prepuce or foreskin.
  30. Removal of prepuce, which covers glans penis.