final minus lipids, carbohydrates,minerls.txt

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final minus lipids, carbohydrates,minerls.txt
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  1. Vitamins?
    chemically unrelated organic substances that are grouped together because each is essential in the diet in minute amounts and is required for specific metabolic reactions.
  2. Vitamins do not provide energy. B vitamin helps the body use what for fuel?
    macronutrients
  3. Choline function is?
    synthesis of acetylcholine (neurotransmitter) and lecithin (phospholipid).
  4. Choline is conditionly required because?
    you can make it in your body but not going to make enough.
  5. B Vitamins function as what?
    • coenzyme in metabolism
    • do not produce any energy important for energy production.
  6. Functions of Thiamin?
    • part of the coenzyme Thiamin pyrophosphate. (involved in energy metabolism)
    • on membranes of nerve cells. (relies on thiamin for function)
  7. Deficiency of Thiamin?
    • Beriberi
    • damage to nervous system, heart, & other muscles.
    • Seen when white rice is a staple food.
  8. Thiamin Toxicity is?
    in alcoholics 4:5 are deficiant in thiamin b/c causes discreation of thiamin.
  9. For water soluble vitamins boiling =
    • decrease water soluble vitamins
    • this case heat actually destroys it.
  10. FAD can accept and donate H's during?
    energy metabolism
  11. FADH2 is involved in how many steps?
    multiple
  12. Riboflavin deficiency are?
    inflammation of mouth, skin, and eyelids; sensitivity to light.

    not going to see a lot of.
  13. Niacin functions are?
    part of coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (involved w/ energy metabolism) and NADP
  14. Deficiency of Niacin? 4 D's
    • 1. Diarria
    • 2. Dermatits
    • 3. demantia
    • 4. death

    when corn was staple food would see this happening.
  15. Niacin toxicity?
    • not going to see unless supplimenting.
    • capillaries will dialate and cause a tingle sensation that can be painful.
  16. Biotin Functions?
    • part of coenzyme used in energy metabolism, fat synthesis, amino acid metabolism, and glycogen synthesis.
    • involved with TCA cycle
    • going towards storeage and breaking down.
  17. Deficiency of Biotin?
    • Binds biotin
    • -in raw eggs
    • rare to see
  18. Pantothenic Acid functions are?
    • involved in fatty acid bio-synthises and also F.A. degradation
    • component of coenzyme A
    • 70 different enzymes need this coenzyme (CoA or ACP)
  19. Pyridoxal phosphate (vit. B6) functions are?
    • part of coenzyme PLP and PMP?
    • -amino acid metabolism
    • -serotonin synthesis
    • -Heme synthesis
  20. Serotonin synthesis is?
    PLP involved w/ making serotonin from tryptoptian involved w/ appetie
  21. Serotonin is?
    • sleep regulation
    • neuro transmitter
    • sinsory perception (mood)
  22. Deficiency of Pyridoxal Phosphate (vit B6)
    • Depression and confusion
    • -neurotransmitter not made
    • microcytic anemia
    • -can't make hemengloben
    • unable to carry sufficiante amount of o2 to blood.
  23. Vit. B6 toxicity is?
    • fatigue
    • headaches
    • nerves damage
    • can get to this level
    • associated w/ neurological damage
  24. Folate (folic Acid) functions are?
    • Part of coenzyme THF
    • the movement of single C's important for DNA synthesis
    • purine synthesis
    • also involved w/ B12
  25. Neural tube defects are?
    • folate supplementation decreases spinal bifida
    • started fortifying grains in 1996
    • fortification has worked and decreased birth defects.
  26. Spinal Bifida is?
    • imcumplet closing at spinal cord -paralysis, club feet, dislocated hip, curvurture of spin.
    • happens durring pregnancy
  27. Folate and cardiovascular disease is?
    • higher homocysteine levels in blood increase cardio vascular disease
    • damage vascular cells
  28. decrease folate =
    increase homocysteine
  29. Folate Deficiency are?
    megaloblastic Anemia
  30. Megaloblastic Anemia is?
    • you dont synthasise DNA properly in red blood cells
    • RBC's get large but dont divide
    • keep swelling and cant make new ones
  31. Imature RBC's dont carry what?
    Oxygen
  32. Unique aspects of Vit. B12 are?
    • absorbed in small intestin
    • most deficiencies due to this system not working right
    • can occur in older age
  33. Functions of Vit. B12 are?
    • Folate metabolism
    • normal function as nerve cells
  34. Folate metabolism is required to?
    Convert folate coenzymes to active forms.
  35. Normal function as nerve cells do what?
    maintain the myelin sheath that insalates nerve fibers from each other for proper function.
  36. a Decrease in B12 =
    patchy destraction of myelin sheath

    can lead to creeping paralysis or death
  37. Vit. B12 deficincy are?
    pernicious anemia
  38. Pernicious anemia is?
    • 1st sign megablastic anemia (folate deficint)
    • -weakness, sore tongue, back pain, and tingling in extremetie

    • left untreated can lead to permanent damaged nerve strengths, creeping paralysis
    • 10-20% of older adults get this
  39. Folate "masking" B12 deficiency is?
    supplementation of folate improves anemia but still get nerve damage
  40. Vit. B12 sources its found in?
    • Animal products
    • vegetarians need to supplement this
  41. Functions of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) are?
    • Collagen synthesis
    • antioxidant
    • iron absorption
    • reacts with other food components
    • decreased risk of common cold
  42. Collagen synthesis is in?
    • Connective tissue
    • bone
    • teeth
    • tendons
    • blood vessels
    • increases the cross-connection between amino acids making collagen stronger.
  43. Antioxidant donates what?
    • electrons to free radicals which avoids oxidative stress.
    • helps vit. E stay in active form
  44. Iron absorption keeps what?
    • iron in its most absorbable form
    • increase vit. C can = too much iron absorption and toxicity
  45. What are some ex. that react w/ other food components?
    • 1.reactivates vit. E so that it can be reused
    • 2. decreased formation of nitrosamines for nitrite
    • -may decrease some cancer
  46. Decreased risk of common cold with vit. C is involved w/?
    • activity of certain immune cells
    • doesn't decrease cold, but may shorten the time you have it.
  47. Vit. C deficiency are?
    • Scurvy
    • take 20-40 days to become deficient
  48. Survy is?
    • Weakness
    • open wonds
    • bleeding gums
    • bleedning around hair follicles
  49. Vit. C toxicity is?
    • Nausea
    • abdominal cramps
    • diarrhea
  50. When ATP is used in the process what is always lost?
    Heat
  51. At rest what makes creatine phosphate?
    ATP and Creatine
  52. During Activity creatine phosphate is broken down to?
    ATP and Creatine
  53. Lactic Acid build up causes?
    • decrease in ph
    • causes muscle pain/burning
    • fatigue
  54. What is the Cori cycle?
    Muscle releases Lactic Acid into liver then filters it, converts it to glucose.
  55. Anaerobic excercise is?
    • Strength and agilitys
    • split seconds of power

    ex: tennis serve, lefting weights, burst of speed
  56. Aerobic excercise is?
    • endurance,
    • low and moderate entensity over a long duration
    • dependent more on fat

    ex: long swim, hiking, jogging
  57. 3 major things that influence ATP for longer periods of time are?
    • 1. what is available from the diet
    • 2. the intensity and duration of avtivity
    • 3. degree in which body is conditioned to perform.
  58. The more glycogen a muscle can store the longer the store will do what?
    will last during exercise which influences performance.
  59. high amounts of carbs =
    influence endurance
  60. high glycogen stores =
    better performance
  61. 1st 20 minutes of exercise uses?
    after that it uses?
    • - glycogen
    • - fat
  62. Intense activity glycogen is used up?
    Faster
  63. How long glycogen stores will last depends on what?
    Not only diet but the activity
  64. Whats "hitting the wall"?
    physical exertion becomes nearly impossible.

    after a few hours of strenuous activity (aerobic) glycogen gets depleted.

    happens to marathon runners
  65. How to maximize Glucose supply/
    • - During last stages of endurance activity glucose consumed during the event goes from G1 to muscles providing needed glucose.
    • - eating w/in 15 min. accelerates glycogen. high glycemic foods are better
  66. how do you do carbohydrate loading?
    • get glycogen stores as high as possible
    • eat little carbs

    • do not want to do this often can cause anhythmias
    • maybe do it 2-4 times a year
  67. Body fat utilization is very important during aerobic exercise because?
    it provides a lot of energy.
  68. What are the activity effects on
    Duration
    intensity
    training
    over 20 minutes

    higher less fat will be used

    allows body to adapt. and use more fat. you get more mitocondria out of this.
  69. Ergogenic aids are?
    Substances or devices that enhance energy production, use or recovery and provide athletes with a competitive advantage.
  70. energy metabolism is?
    includes all the reactions by which the body obtains and spends the energy from food.
  71. What is Metabolism?
    - Sum of all chemical reactions that take place in living cells.

    • -Energy you get from eating plants/animals.
    • -Dont get all the energy.
  72. Carbohydrates go to what in absorption?
    Glucose

    -Main use
  73. Lipids go to what in absorption?
    Glycerol + Fatty Acids

    -Main use
  74. Proteins go to what in absorption?
    Amino Acids

    • -primarily for building protein
    • - 10-15% comes from protien
  75. Anabolism is?
    Smaller molecules are put together to build larger molecules.

    -Have to put energy in to occur
  76. Both types of reactions are common because? (anabolism and catabolism)
    in metabolic pathways dependent on the metabolic state of the person.

    fed vs. fasted
  77. Catabolism is?
    Large molecules are broken down to small molecules

    -energy is released
  78. In general we store energy as either what? (2 ways)
    • glycogen
    • fat (main way)
  79. The energy released from the breakdown of these 4 basic building blocks is often captured in what bonds?
    ATP
  80. ATP is?
    Common high energy storage compound.

    -As we start to release energy it is temporarly stored in ATP.

    - During chemical reactions
  81. What makes up a couple reaction?
    ATP and parent compound
  82. What is ATP used for?
    Used to transfer energy released during catabolic rxn's to power its anabolic reactions.

    • -Heat is released when happening about 60% is heat.
    • -some energy is lost as heat
  83. Pyruvate has how many carbon compounds?
    3
  84. Acetyle CoaA has how many carbon compounds?
    2
  85. NADH and FADH2 are what?
    complex organic molecules that work with enzymes to affilate activity.
  86. Pyruvate can be used to make what and acetyle CoA can not?
    Glucose
  87. Number of Carbons are key to what?
    Were they enter metabolisum.
  88. 3 carbon structures are used to make what?
    Glucose
  89. 2 carbon structures can not make what?
    Glucose
  90. fatty acids enter at?
    ACetyl CoA which is why they can not form glucose
  91. Some Amino Acids can make what?
    Glucose
  92. NADH and FADH2 go to what?
    the electron transport chain and are used to make ATP
  93. glucose ----> pyravate=
    glycolysis
  94. NADH and FADH2 don't produce what in the same amounts?
    energy
  95. Aerobic is?
    Oxygen has to be present, if not goes towards lactate
  96. Anaerobic is?
    Does not have oxygen?
  97. Pyruvate can enter 1 or 2 ways dependent on what?
    oxygen availability
  98. pyruvate ---->
    lactic acid
  99. Because fatty acids come in as acetyl CoA they can not be used to make?
    glucose
  100. Fatty Acids enter as?
    2 carbon compounds combined with COA to form Acetyl COA

    called fatty acid oxidation
  101. Glycerol is?
    3 carbon compound

    used to go towards glucose
  102. There are 3 ways TG provide compounds to make ATP what are they?
    • 1. glycerol (3 carbon comp.) enters as pyrubate
    • 2. The assetal CoA fatty acid entering the TCA cycle
    • 3. NADH and FADH2 from fatty acid that enters the electron train.
  103. Ketogenic?
    can enter as intermediates of the TCA cycle
  104. many Amin acids can be used to make?
    glucose

    this will be important when we consider a long term fast.
  105. 3 major keytone bodies?
    • 1. betahydrocsbutarate
    • 2. Acetoacitate
    • 3. Acetone

    Produces small amounts

    always have some in system
  106. Ketoses is?
    Reduces loss of appitite

    your brain gives up telling you that you are hungry.

    low carb diets can force you into this
  107. Nutrigenetics refers to what?
    The specific gene sequence differences between humans and how these affect the differences in repsonses to diet and particular needs for nutrients.
  108. Nutrigenomics is?
    • The study of the effects of diet on the expression of all genes and their functions
    • What are the 2 major classifications?
    • Fat Soluble and Water Soluble
  109. What is the 1st fat-soluble vitamin found?
    Vitamin A
  110. What are the three major forms in animals?
    • Retinol
    • retinal
    • retinoic acid
  111. What is Beta-carotene?
    • found in plants
    • you get it from eating carrots
  112. What are the functions of vitamin A?
    • maintains the cornea
    • transparent membrane caring the outside of the eye
  113. Cells in the retina contain the pigment what?
    Rhodepsin
  114. Rhodepsin is what?
    made up of protein opsin and 1 molecule of retinal.
  115. What is epithelial cells?
    Cells that line any surface that has contact with outside
  116. Tissues and cells that produce mucus must have?
    Vitamin A.
  117. Infections diseases are big problems with?
    Vitamin A deficiency
  118. Night blindness
    1st level; when retinal does not receive enough retinal to rejuvenate visual pigment.
  119. Blindness (xerophthalmia)
    • full blindness
    • no vitamin A at cornia.
    • Will get hard and dry which is (reversable)
    • Then eventually very soft (irreversable)= blindness
  120. Keratinization
    • skin cells start making keratin
    • gets dry, rough, and scaley
  121. Beta-Carotene as antioxidant is?
    Biological activity is to act as a antioxidant that can deactivate free radicals.
  122. what are vitamin a deficiencies?
    • infectious disease
    • night blindness
    • blindness (xerophthalmia)
    • keratinization
  123. What are vitamin A toxicity?
    • Bone defects
    • Birth defects
    • Acne treatments
    • Excess beta- carotene leads to skin discoloration
  124. What are bone defects?
    Excessive vitamin A can weaken bones and cause bones to be more prone to fractures
  125. Birh defects?
    Consumes high amounts. About 7th week of pregnancy can happen.
  126. Acne treatment?
    Acutane-causes birthdefects-> vitamin A
  127. What are the functions of vitamin D?
    • 1. enhance absorbtion and the GI track
    • 2. increases reabsorbtion in kidneys
    • 3. increases mobilization from bones to blood.
  128. What are Vitamin D deficiency?
    • Rickets
    • osteomalacia
    • can occur in older adults
  129. Rickets is?
    • In children- causes growth retardation, happens when bones fail to calcify
    • bones weak and bend (boned legs)
  130. Osteomalacia is?
    Adults form of rickets

    • in women with repeated pregnancy
    • low sun exposer
    • low calcium intake
  131. How does vitamin D deficiency occur in older adults?
    • 1. skin, liver, kidney less cappable of making vitamin D
    • 2. don't drink much milk
    • 3. Don't go outside
  132. High blood calcium occurs with?
    • high vitamin D intake causes:
    • calcium stones in soft tissue such as kidneys
  133. Only vitamin D products can cause toxity not from the sun
  134. Vitamin E's most active form is?
    alpha in humans
  135. Erythrocyte hemolysis is what?
    Bursting of red blood cells occurs when poly unsatturated fatty acids in cell membrain of red blood cells oxidize RBC's break open and spill contents

    can occur in infants
  136. Vitamin K is produced by?
    Bacteria and GI track
  137. Ifants are sterol at birth and given what shot?
    Vitamin K so not defestiont
  138. What are the functions of Vitamin K?
    • synthesis of bone proteins
    • blood clotting
    • if you don't have vitamin K proteins cant bind calcium.
  139. Hemorrhagic disease is?
    excesive bleeding because not forming blood clots.
  140. Sources of vitamin K are?
    • bacteria synthesis
    • liver
    • leafy green vegetables
    • Energy Balance is?
    • amount of fat stored or used in a day is dependent on energy balance.
    • 1lb. fat = 3500 calories
    • excess energy is stored as fat
    • we eat to refill our body
  141. To achieve energy balance your body does what?
    • Tries to control how much energy comes in by affecting food intake.
    • controls when to stop/start eating
  142. Direct Calorimetry?
    amount of heat released when you burn the food.
  143. Indirect calorimetry?
    measure the amount of oxygen consumed
  144. energy in =
    energy out
  145. Bodies goal is
    achieve energy balance

    children are good at this
  146. Hunger?
    physilogical need for food
  147. appetit?
    • response to seeing or smelling food.
    • full (not hungry) but still eat pie
  148. satiation?
    signal to stop eating
  149. satiety?
    signal of don't start eating again.
  150. Protien does what?
    supresses hunger and inhibits eating the most
  151. Neuropeptide Y?
    • causes carbohydrate cravings
    • decreases energy used
    • initiates eating.
    • increases fat storage
  152. Ghrelin?
    • secreted by stomach cells
    • stimulates appitite,
    • promotes energy storage
  153. Leptin?
    • suppreses appitite,
    • increases energy expetiager
  154. Thermogenesis?
    easy measurement of how your body uses energy.
  155. Leptin production on people?
    only very few people dont produce enough leptin

    average person produces enough and given leptin does nothing for them.
  156. the bod's generation of heat is measured to determine what?
    the amount of energy expended.
  157. Heat is released when?
    • macronutrients used to make ATP
    • rest is lost as heat.
  158. Remember metabolic events capture only about 40% of the energy as what?
    ATP and the rest lost as heat.
  159. Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) is?
    the rate of energy used for metabolism under specified conditions

    this is what we refer too when talking about ppl havinga fast or slow meabolism.
  160. Basal Metabolism is?
    energy needed to maintain life when a body is at complete digestive, physical, and emotional rest.
  161. Resting Metabolic rate (RMR) is?
    • less restrictions then BMR
    • criteria for recent food intake and physical activity
  162. Physical Avtivity is?
    voluntary movement of skeletal muscles and support systems.

    most variable and most changeable component of energy expenditure.
  163. 3 things that affect physical activity are?
    • 1. muscle mass
    • 2. body weight
    • 3. activety it's self
  164. What is thermic effect of food?
    • an estimation of the energy required to process food.
    • to digest, absorb, transport, metabolise, and store ingested nutrients
    • approximately 10% of energy intake
  165. Adaptive Theromogenesis
    Adjustments in energy expenditure related to changes in environment and to physiological events.

    bodies ability to adjust to the situation
  166. Body composition is?
    proportions of muscle, bone, fat, and other tissue that make up a persons total body weight.

    Difficult to measure body composition in living humans so we use body weight.
  167. Lean tissue =
    bone, muscle, water
  168. Body weight does not=
    • body fat
    • a sedentary person can be at a healthy weight, but have too much fat.
  169. what is intra-adominal fat?
    fat deposited around organs
  170. Central obesity is?
    upper body fat mainly associated with heart disease, stroke, diabetes, hypertension, and some cancers.
  171. How do we determine a healthy body composition?
    • by good health
    • BMI is commonly used for this.
  172. Body Mass Index BMI is calculated how?
    weight/height
  173. Digestion is?
    process by which food is broken down into absorption.
  174. absorption is?
    untake of nutrients
  175. What are the 2 major functions of GI tract
    • 1. transfer of nutrients into circulation
    • 2. protects the body from harmful ingested material
  176. What are the 5 steps of transfer of nutrients into circulation
    • 1. reductions of particle size leading to an increase of surface material.
    • 2. conversion of food to an isotonic aqueis solution.
    • 3. solubilization (emulsification) of hydrophobic lipids
    • 4. enzomatic digestion of large molecules to small fragments
    • 5. absorbtion of small molecules of digestion across intestinal cell.
  177. isotonic is a solution contaning?
    • same # of non-penetrating particles, cells will neither decrease
    • -will not shrink or swell.
  178. digestion begins in?
    • mouth- mechanics break down and making saliva
    • -things start to absorb in mouth under tongue
  179. bolis is?
    food that has been swolloed
  180. chyme is?
    once food is swallowed.
  181. Small intestint?
    90% absorbtion occurs
  182. Colen?
    absorbs water that is being reabsorbed
  183. incisors have?
    chiseled edes that cut
  184. Canines (cuspids) have?
    pointed crowns that tear.
  185. Premolars (bicuspids) and molars have?
    ridged surfaces that crush and grind
  186. Peristalsis?
    way muscular contraction of gastro tract pushes things along.
  187. Strongest muscles around stomach are?
    • 1. circular
    • 2. longitunital
    • 3. diagonal
    • -goal is to produce a mixture of use of them.
  188. upper esophageal?
    prevents air from getting into esophageal
  189. lower esophageal?
    between esophages and stomach prevent back juice in esophagest.
  190. pyloric?
    seperates the acidic from nutral enviroments it always only small amount of chyme
  191. Ilealcecal?
    between small and large intest. prevents material from coming back in.
  192. anti acids are?
    • tums
    • rolex
    • -form of calcium
  193. Acid reducer are?
    • pepcid
    • -reduce amount of stomach acid
  194. Barrett's is?
    Chronic inflammation and damage of the esophages
  195. What are the 5 organs that produce digestion secretion?
    • salivary glands
    • stomach
    • pancrees
    • liver (gallbladder)
    • small intestint
  196. Saliva is?
    • 99.5% water
    • lubricationg the food
  197. Salivary amylase?
    start to break down large stach molecules to mono and disacarides.
  198. lingual lipase?
    lipid enzyme involved with tryglycerides with short and mediam chain fatty acids.
  199. What makes up the gasteric juice?
    • hydrochloric Acid (HCl)
    • pepsinogen-->pepsin
    • mucus`
  200. Endocrine?
    • synthesis of hormones
    • -glucagon and insolin
  201. Exocrine?
    sythesis and sucreation of digestion enzyme.
  202. Pancreatic juice?
    97-99% water lubricate to get mixture.
  203. bicarbonate is a?
    • buffer acid that is coming out of stomach
    • -stops pepcid from functioning
  204. Zymogens is an active form of?
    enzymes

    dont want active till in form of food.
  205. alpha amylase?
    primary amylase that take carbons apart.
  206. exopeptidases?
    gong to cut last a.a. off.
  207. Liver produces?
    bile
  208. Bile contains?
    • no enzymes
    • fat digestion
  209. Bile essential for fat digestion (3)
    • 1. ammolsification of fat
    • 2. contains bycarbonate to neutrilies acid
    • 3. route of cholesterial excretion as well as bile acid
  210. primary function of colon is?
    reabsorb water
  211. Small intestine is the?
    primary absorber
  212. crypt is a?
    tubular gland that lies between intestinel bili and screts intesten juices
  213. new cells form in?
    • 3-5 days
    • constently changing and moving
  214. what are the 3 absorption of nutrients?
    • simple diffusion
    • facilitated diffusion
    • active transport
  215. Simple diffusion is?
    things that can move simply in more right through (small lipids and water)
  216. Faciliated diffusion is?
    required a carrier. --> changes shape to go into cell. (vitamins)
  217. Active Transport requires?
    • energy
    • going agenst concentration gradient. (glucose and a.a.)
  218. What is the thermic affect of food?
    • Release enzymes
    • contraction of muscles
    • absorb nutrients
  219. 10% of energy is used to?
    digest food.
  220. Large fat products go to?
    lympatic system (do not go to liver first) go to rest of body.
  221. Cells further up better absorbing things?
    quicker
  222. Cells further down better absorbing things?
    slowely
  223. The liver is?
    • protective organ
    • everything your body is trying to get out of system.
  224. What is a protein?
    a group of compounds composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen arranged into amino acids.
  225. What is a amino acid?
    building blocks of protein
  226. What does an amino acid structure look like?
    each contain an amino group, an acid group, a hydrogen atom, and a distinctive side group all attached to a central carbon.
  227. Proteins are more complex then carbs because?
    they have different side chains on amino acids.
  228. Common structures of an amino acid?
    • differ in size, shape, electrical charge, and other characteristics which leads to different biological properties.
    • this changes there function.
  229. What are the essential A.A. and how many?
    • 9
    • histidine
    • isoleucine
    • leucine
    • lysine
    • methionine
    • phenylalanine
    • threonine
    • tryptophan
    • valine
  230. What are the nonessential A.A. and how many?
    • 11
    • alanine
    • arginine
    • asparagine
    • aspartic acid
    • cysteine
    • glutamic acid
    • glutamine
    • glycine
    • proline
    • serine
    • tyrosine
  231. how many non essential a.a. are in newborns?
    • 5 a.a.
    • all others are essential until pathways function right.
  232. Phenylalanine is used to make what?
    tyrosine
  233. People with PKu cant make tyrosine so its?
    conditionally essential for them.
  234. essential you get from?
    your diet
  235. non-essential you get from?
    making it in your body.
  236. Taurine is a?
    beta amino acid containing a sulfonyl group.
  237. What are the defficiencies of Taurine?
    • decrease growth
    • neralogical
    • blindness
    • retinal degeneration
  238. Taurine is found in significant quantities in what?
    • animals
    • they float in body as free amino acid.
  239. Taurine can be made in the?
    • body but might not have enough so have to eat some.
    • supplemented in all major infant formulas.
  240. What is deAmination?
    a.a. be used for energy but to do so the nitrogen needs to be removed for this process.
  241. What is Amination?
    • chemical process that your body takes fat and carbs to make a.a.
    • adding nitrogen group (NH3) to it makes it happen
  242. What is a peptide bond?
    • the bond that connects the acid end of one a.a. with the amino end of another, forming a link in a protein chain.
    • - condenstation reaction
  243. What is transamination and synthesis of a nonessential a.a.?
    • one molecule to another making it from another a.a.
    • Transform amino group (NH3) from amino acid to keto acid to form a new amino acid and new keto acid.
  244. The nonessential a.a are made involves?
    using other a.a.
  245. most protein contains how many a.a.?
    a few dozen to several hundred.
  246. poly peptide is a?
    protein
  247. what type of peptides can you have?
    • di=2
    • tri=3
    • poly=4
    • sequence of a.a. tells them what to do.
  248. denaturation is?
    • uncoiling of a protein
    • happens when you heat it up
    • easier to digest
  249. Shape of a protein structure does what?
    • gives different functions
    • different structures let them do different things
  250. protein structures?
    • different side chains on different a.a. have various chemical properties
    • -water to the inside forces twist and bend in the protein.
  251. what is the role of protein in food?
    is not to provide specific body protein directly but to supply the a.a. from which the body can make its own proteins.
  252. hydrochloric does what?
    denatures protein activates pepsion.
  253. pepsion does what?
    break protein up to small units.
  254. What is protein digestion?
    digestion-->AA-->absorption-->blood-->tissues--> make protein that we need.
  255. DNA stands for?
    deoxyribonucleic acid
  256. RNA stands for?
    Ribonucleic Acid
  257. Transcription is?
    • DNA-->RNA
    • step 1 of protein synthesis overview
    • uncoil DNA and copy it to mRNA
    • goes on in nucleous then leaves.
  258. protein made from DNA is what makes you?
    • you
    • gene expression is protein expression.
  259. Translation is?
    • transfer RNA bring a.a to mRNA
    • have to be in a certain order
    • tells which one to site down.
    • translating them into protein.
    • hemogloben can't carry oxygen well.
  260. proteins are very versatile what 2 things can they do?
    facilitate actions in the body and sometimes they are just used.
  261. An enzyme is?
    protein that facilitate chemical reactions w/out being changed in the process.
  262. 3 jobs of an enzyme are?
    • 1. break down substance
    • 2. make a new substance
    • 3. transform a substance into another
  263. collogen makes up?
    • most of bone and tissue
    • building blocks protein in our tissue.
  264. hormones are?
    • chemical messengers not all hormones are protein but most are.
    • tell certain part of the body to do something.
  265. Fluid balance is?
    • control of fluid inside cell and outside of cell
    • water goes were protein is
  266. intercellular is??
    in cell
  267. extercellular is?
    outside cell
  268. interstitial is?
    between cells
  269. intravascular is?
    with in blood vessels.
  270. adema is?
    swelling
  271. 3 ways adema occurs?
    • 1. excessive protein due to kidney disease
    • 2. inadiquit protein sithases due to protein
    • 3. inadiquit protein intake
  272. ph balance?
    • acids release h ions to buffer
    • protein w/ neg. charge accepts them
  273. Transporters?
    different proteins transport all sorts of things.
  274. immunity antigen is?
    • anything you are exposed to that is not you.
    • -body makes antibody that are protein.
    • -these proteins allow you to have immunity
  275. Fibrin is critical for?
    blood clotting
  276. opsin is in?
    retna of eye (protein) when light hits protein it will change canfirmation ineshats sights
  277. Functions of protein as energy?
    • protein can be used for energy
    • can be used to provide energy and glucose.
  278. protein turnover is?
    constantly breaking down protein and have to make new ones.
  279. Nitrogen balance is?
    in a healthy adult protein sythises equals degrigation and protein intake (dietary) equals nitrogen excrition in feces, sweat, urine
  280. Nitrogen balance is used to?
    estimate of protein requirement.
  281. Nin=Nout
    zero nitrogen balance (equilibrium)
  282. Nin > Nout
    • positive nitrogen balance
    • body senthesies moves protein then it degreades
    • ex: pregnancy and growth (children)
  283. Nin < Nout
    • negative nitrogen balance
    • body breaks down more protein then it makes.
    • ex: some one starving
  284. how do you Make nonessential a.a.
    breaking proteins down out of essiential a.a.
  285. how do you make other compounds?
    a.a. tyrosine used to make neurotransmitters
  286. What does energy do in the roles of a.a.?
    • main way store energy- fat
    • not bodies intent to store energy as protein
    • when it is deprived of energy it will use this.
    • -body will lose lean mass
  287. What are the 2 protein quality?
    • 1. does this provide proper balance of a.a. for body needs
    • 2. is it digestable
  288. Complete protein contains?
    • All essential a.a. must be provided at the sametime for protein sythesis to occur
    • - 1 missing, a.a.= no protein
  289. Digestibility measures amount of?
    amino acids absorbs for a given protein intake.
  290. high quality proteins?
    • make all essintial amino acids needs in relavent to a human requires.
    • ex: meat-red, fish, poultry
  291. Complementary proteins are?
    • two or more dietary protein that when put together you get all essential a.a.
    • ex: beans and rice
  292. reference point is?
    • a standard protein that meets the essential a.a. requirements of preschool-age children
    • -egg usually used
  293. Amino acid (chemical) scoring?
    • compare protein in food to gold standard (egg)
    • lower chemical score not as good for you.
    • may not reflect the way the body will use protein.
    • fails to take into account digestibility of a protein.
  294. Protein digestibility-corrected a.a. score
    • like a.a. scoring
    • takes into account digestibility
  295. Biological value?
    measures of efficiency of a protein to support the body's needs.

    look back over pae 9 in notes
  296. Protein efficiency ratio?
    • measure weight gain in growing animals compared to its protein intake.
    • growing animal- feed it source of protein if it grows good source if not can figure out why.
    • nothing will go in baby food unless it goes through this.
  297. malnutrition?
    not getting all nutritients they need.
  298. acute energy malnutrition?
    • PEM caused be a recient event of food restriction
    • -can tell by normal height thin for height
  299. Chronic energy malnutrition?
    • long term food depervation
    • -will be short for age
  300. Health effects of protein?
    • if you don't have protein and can't make it you will die.
    • no matter quality of calories not getting enough body will use protein for energy.
  301. Marasmas is?
    • Chronic PEM- lack in both energy and protein
    • -defisiant in almost everything
    • - impair muscle and brain development
    • - running on very basis of living life
    • - body not good at absorbing nutrients
  302. Kwashiorkor is and the infections?
    • can not make lipoproteins that carry fat from the liver so you end up with a fatty liver.
    • -no antibodies = increase infection
    • -increase infection= increase kwashiorkor
    • - other proteins decrease making them mroe suseptable to infection
  303. Kwashiorkor acute verion of PEM is?
    • getting enough calorie but not enough protein
    • -kids will have adema (swelling in abdominal area)
  304. Vegan?
    eat nothing to do with animal diet
  305. lactovegetarians?
    eat milk based products
  306. lacto-ovo vegetarians
    eat milk and eggs

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