final minus lipids, carbohydrates,minerls.txt
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final minus lipids, carbohydrates,minerls.txt
chemically unrelated organic substances that are grouped together because each is essential in the diet in minute amounts and is required for specific metabolic reactions.
Vitamins do not provide energy. B vitamin helps the body use what for fuel?
Choline function is?
synthesis of acetylcholine (neurotransmitter) and lecithin (phospholipid).
Choline is conditionly required because?
you can make it in your body but not going to make enough.
B Vitamins function as what?
coenzyme in metabolism
do not produce any energy important for energy production.
Functions of Thiamin?
part of the coenzyme Thiamin pyrophosphate. (involved in energy metabolism)
on membranes of nerve cells. (relies on thiamin for function)
Deficiency of Thiamin?
damage to nervous system, heart, & other muscles.
Seen when white rice is a staple food.
Thiamin Toxicity is?
in alcoholics 4:5 are deficiant in thiamin b/c causes discreation of thiamin.
For water soluble vitamins boiling =
decrease water soluble vitamins
this case heat actually destroys it.
FAD can accept and donate H's during?
FADH2 is involved in how many steps?
Riboflavin deficiency are?
inflammation of mouth, skin, and eyelids; sensitivity to light.
not going to see a lot of.
Niacin functions are?
part of coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (involved w/ energy metabolism) and NADP
Deficiency of Niacin? 4 D's
when corn was staple food would see this happening.
not going to see unless supplimenting.
capillaries will dialate and cause a tingle sensation that can be painful.
part of coenzyme used in energy metabolism, fat synthesis, amino acid metabolism, and glycogen synthesis.
involved with TCA cycle
going towards storeage and breaking down.
Deficiency of Biotin?
-in raw eggs
rare to see
Pantothenic Acid functions are?
involved in fatty acid bio-synthises and also F.A. degradation
component of coenzyme A
70 different enzymes need this coenzyme (CoA or ACP)
Pyridoxal phosphate (vit. B6) functions are?
part of coenzyme PLP and PMP?
-amino acid metabolism
Serotonin synthesis is?
PLP involved w/ making serotonin from tryptoptian involved w/ appetie
sinsory perception (mood)
Deficiency of Pyridoxal Phosphate (vit B6)
Depression and confusion
-neurotransmitter not made
-can't make hemengloben
unable to carry sufficiante amount of o2 to blood.
Vit. B6 toxicity is?
can get to this level
associated w/ neurological damage
Folate (folic Acid) functions are?
Part of coenzyme THF
the movement of single C's important for DNA synthesis
also involved w/ B12
Neural tube defects are?
folate supplementation decreases spinal bifida
started fortifying grains in 1996
fortification has worked and decreased birth defects.
Spinal Bifida is?
imcumplet closing at spinal cord -paralysis, club feet, dislocated hip, curvurture of spin.
happens durring pregnancy
Folate and cardiovascular disease is?
higher homocysteine levels in blood increase cardio vascular disease
damage vascular cells
decrease folate =
Folate Deficiency are?
Megaloblastic Anemia is?
you dont synthasise DNA properly in red blood cells
RBC's get large but dont divide
keep swelling and cant make new ones
Imature RBC's dont carry what?
Unique aspects of Vit. B12 are?
absorbed in small intestin
most deficiencies due to this system not working right
can occur in older age
Functions of Vit. B12 are?
normal function as nerve cells
Folate metabolism is required to?
Convert folate coenzymes to active forms.
Normal function as nerve cells do what?
maintain the myelin sheath that insalates nerve fibers from each other for proper function.
a Decrease in B12 =
patchy destraction of myelin sheath
can lead to creeping paralysis or death
Vit. B12 deficincy are?
Pernicious anemia is?
1st sign megablastic anemia (folate deficint)
-weakness, sore tongue, back pain, and tingling in extremetie
left untreated can lead to permanent damaged nerve strengths, creeping paralysis
10-20% of older adults get this
Folate "masking" B12 deficiency is?
supplementation of folate improves anemia but still get nerve damage
Vit. B12 sources its found in?
vegetarians need to supplement this
Functions of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) are?
reacts with other food components
decreased risk of common cold
Collagen synthesis is in?
increases the cross-connection between amino acids making collagen stronger.
Antioxidant donates what?
electrons to free radicals which avoids oxidative stress.
helps vit. E stay in active form
Iron absorption keeps what?
iron in its most absorbable form
increase vit. C can = too much iron absorption and toxicity
What are some ex. that react w/ other food components?
1.reactivates vit. E so that it can be reused
2. decreased formation of nitrosamines for nitrite
-may decrease some cancer
Decreased risk of common cold with vit. C is involved w/?
activity of certain immune cells
doesn't decrease cold, but may shorten the time you have it.
Vit. C deficiency are?
take 20-40 days to become deficient
bleedning around hair follicles
Vit. C toxicity is?
When ATP is used in the process what is always lost?
At rest what makes creatine phosphate?
ATP and Creatine
During Activity creatine phosphate is broken down to?
ATP and Creatine
Lactic Acid build up causes?
decrease in ph
causes muscle pain/burning
What is the Cori cycle?
Muscle releases Lactic Acid into liver then filters it, converts it to glucose.
Anaerobic excercise is?
Strength and agilitys
split seconds of power
ex: tennis serve, lefting weights, burst of speed
Aerobic excercise is?
low and moderate entensity over a long duration
dependent more on fat
ex: long swim, hiking, jogging
3 major things that influence ATP for longer periods of time are?
1. what is available from the diet
2. the intensity and duration of avtivity
3. degree in which body is conditioned to perform.
The more glycogen a muscle can store the longer the store will do what?
will last during exercise which influences performance.
high amounts of carbs =
high glycogen stores =
1st 20 minutes of exercise uses?
after that it uses?
Intense activity glycogen is used up?
How long glycogen stores will last depends on what?
Not only diet but the activity
Whats "hitting the wall"?
physical exertion becomes nearly impossible.
after a few hours of strenuous activity (aerobic) glycogen gets depleted.
happens to marathon runners
How to maximize Glucose supply/
- During last stages of endurance activity glucose consumed during the event goes from G1 to muscles providing needed glucose.
- eating w/in 15 min. accelerates glycogen. high glycemic foods are better
how do you do carbohydrate loading?
get glycogen stores as high as possible
eat little carbs
do not want to do this often can cause anhythmias
maybe do it 2-4 times a year
Body fat utilization is very important during aerobic exercise because?
it provides a lot of energy.
What are the activity effects on
over 20 minutes
higher less fat will be used
allows body to adapt. and use more fat. you get more mitocondria out of this.
Ergogenic aids are?
Substances or devices that enhance energy production, use or recovery and provide athletes with a competitive advantage.
energy metabolism is?
includes all the reactions by which the body obtains and spends the energy from food.
What is Metabolism?
- Sum of all chemical reactions that take place in living cells.
-Energy you get from eating plants/animals.
-Dont get all the energy.
Carbohydrates go to what in absorption?
Lipids go to what in absorption?
Glycerol + Fatty Acids
Proteins go to what in absorption?
-primarily for building protein
- 10-15% comes from protien
Smaller molecules are put together to build larger molecules.
-Have to put energy in to occur
Both types of reactions are common because? (anabolism and catabolism)
in metabolic pathways dependent on the metabolic state of the person.
fed vs. fasted
Large molecules are broken down to small molecules
-energy is released
In general we store energy as either what? (2 ways)
fat (main way)
The energy released from the breakdown of these 4 basic building blocks is often captured in what bonds?
Common high energy storage compound.
-As we start to release energy it is temporarly stored in ATP.
- During chemical reactions
What makes up a couple reaction?
ATP and parent compound
What is ATP used for?
Used to transfer energy released during catabolic rxn's to power its anabolic reactions.
-Heat is released when happening about 60% is heat.
-some energy is lost as heat
Pyruvate has how many carbon compounds?
Acetyle CoaA has how many carbon compounds?
NADH and FADH2 are what?
complex organic molecules that work with enzymes to affilate activity.
Pyruvate can be used to make what and acetyle CoA can not?
Number of Carbons are key to what?
Were they enter metabolisum.
3 carbon structures are used to make what?
2 carbon structures can not make what?
fatty acids enter at?
ACetyl CoA which is why they can not form glucose
Some Amino Acids can make what?
NADH and FADH2 go to what?
the electron transport chain and are used to make ATP
glucose ----> pyravate=
NADH and FADH2 don't produce what in the same amounts?
Oxygen has to be present, if not goes towards lactate
Does not have oxygen?
Pyruvate can enter 1 or 2 ways dependent on what?
Because fatty acids come in as acetyl CoA they can not be used to make?
Fatty Acids enter as?
2 carbon compounds combined with COA to form Acetyl COA
called fatty acid oxidation
3 carbon compound
used to go towards glucose
There are 3 ways TG provide compounds to make ATP what are they?
1. glycerol (3 carbon comp.) enters as pyrubate
2. The assetal CoA fatty acid entering the TCA cycle
3. NADH and FADH2 from fatty acid that enters the electron train.
can enter as intermediates of the TCA cycle
many Amin acids can be used to make?
this will be important when we consider a long term fast.
3 major keytone bodies?
Produces small amounts
always have some in system
Reduces loss of appitite
your brain gives up telling you that you are hungry.
low carb diets can force you into this
Nutrigenetics refers to what?
The specific gene sequence differences between humans and how these affect the differences in repsonses to diet and particular needs for nutrients.
The study of the effects of diet on the expression of all genes and their functions
What are the 2 major classifications?
Fat Soluble and Water Soluble
What is the 1st fat-soluble vitamin found?
What are the three major forms in animals?
What is Beta-carotene?
found in plants
you get it from eating carrots
What are the functions of vitamin A?
maintains the cornea
transparent membrane caring the outside of the eye
Cells in the retina contain the pigment what?
Rhodepsin is what?
made up of protein opsin and 1 molecule of retinal.
What is epithelial cells?
Cells that line any surface that has contact with outside
Tissues and cells that produce mucus must have?
Infections diseases are big problems with?
Vitamin A deficiency
1st level; when retinal does not receive enough retinal to rejuvenate visual pigment.
no vitamin A at cornia.
Will get hard and dry which is (reversable)
Then eventually very soft (irreversable)= blindness
skin cells start making keratin
gets dry, rough, and scaley
Beta-Carotene as antioxidant is?
Biological activity is to act as a antioxidant that can deactivate free radicals.
what are vitamin a deficiencies?
What are vitamin A toxicity?
Excess beta- carotene leads to skin discoloration
What are bone defects?
Excessive vitamin A can weaken bones and cause bones to be more prone to fractures
Consumes high amounts. About 7th week of pregnancy can happen.
Acutane-causes birthdefects-> vitamin A
What are the functions of vitamin D?
1. enhance absorbtion and the GI track
2. increases reabsorbtion in kidneys
3. increases mobilization from bones to blood.
What are Vitamin D deficiency?
can occur in older adults
In children- causes growth retardation, happens when bones fail to calcify
bones weak and bend (boned legs)
Adults form of rickets
in women with repeated pregnancy
low sun exposer
low calcium intake
How does vitamin D deficiency occur in older adults?
1. skin, liver, kidney less cappable of making vitamin D
2. don't drink much milk
3. Don't go outside
High blood calcium occurs with?
high vitamin D intake causes:
calcium stones in soft tissue such as kidneys
Only vitamin D products can cause toxity not from the sun
Vitamin E's most active form is?
alpha in humans
Erythrocyte hemolysis is what?
Bursting of red blood cells occurs when poly unsatturated fatty acids in cell membrain of red blood cells oxidize RBC's break open and spill contents
can occur in infants
Vitamin K is produced by?
Bacteria and GI track
Ifants are sterol at birth and given what shot?
Vitamin K so not defestiont
What are the functions of Vitamin K?
synthesis of bone proteins
if you don't have vitamin K proteins cant bind calcium.
Hemorrhagic disease is?
excesive bleeding because not forming blood clots.
Sources of vitamin K are?
leafy green vegetables
Energy Balance is?
amount of fat stored or used in a day is dependent on energy balance.
1lb. fat = 3500 calories
excess energy is stored as fat
we eat to refill our body
To achieve energy balance your body does what?
Tries to control how much energy comes in by affecting food intake.
controls when to stop/start eating
amount of heat released when you burn the food.
measure the amount of oxygen consumed
energy in =
Bodies goal is
achieve energy balance
children are good at this
physilogical need for food
response to seeing or smelling food.
full (not hungry) but still eat pie
signal to stop eating
signal of don't start eating again.
Protien does what?
supresses hunger and inhibits eating the most
causes carbohydrate cravings
decreases energy used
increases fat storage
secreted by stomach cells
promotes energy storage
increases energy expetiager
easy measurement of how your body uses energy.
Leptin production on people?
only very few people dont produce enough leptin
average person produces enough and given leptin does nothing for them.
the bod's generation of heat is measured to determine what?
the amount of energy expended.
Heat is released when?
macronutrients used to make ATP
rest is lost as heat.
Remember metabolic events capture only about 40% of the energy as what?
ATP and the rest lost as heat.
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) is?
the rate of energy used for metabolism under specified conditions
this is what we refer too when talking about ppl havinga fast or slow meabolism.
Basal Metabolism is?
energy needed to maintain life when a body is at complete digestive, physical, and emotional rest.
Resting Metabolic rate (RMR) is?
less restrictions then BMR
criteria for recent food intake and physical activity
Physical Avtivity is?
voluntary movement of skeletal muscles and support systems.
most variable and most changeable component of energy expenditure.
3 things that affect physical activity are?
1. muscle mass
2. body weight
3. activety it's self
What is thermic effect of food?
an estimation of the energy required to process food.
to digest, absorb, transport, metabolise, and store ingested nutrients
approximately 10% of energy intake
Adjustments in energy expenditure related to changes in environment and to physiological events.
bodies ability to adjust to the situation
Body composition is?
proportions of muscle, bone, fat, and other tissue that make up a persons total body weight.
Difficult to measure body composition in living humans so we use body weight.
Lean tissue =
bone, muscle, water
Body weight does not=
a sedentary person can be at a healthy weight, but have too much fat.
what is intra-adominal fat?
fat deposited around organs
Central obesity is?
upper body fat mainly associated with heart disease, stroke, diabetes, hypertension, and some cancers.
How do we determine a healthy body composition?
by good health
BMI is commonly used for this.
Body Mass Index BMI is calculated how?
process by which food is broken down into absorption.
untake of nutrients
What are the 2 major functions of GI tract
1. transfer of nutrients into circulation
2. protects the body from harmful ingested material
What are the 5 steps of transfer of nutrients into circulation
1. reductions of particle size leading to an increase of surface material.
2. conversion of food to an isotonic aqueis solution.
3. solubilization (emulsification) of hydrophobic lipids
4. enzomatic digestion of large molecules to small fragments
5. absorbtion of small molecules of digestion across intestinal cell.
isotonic is a solution contaning?
same # of non-penetrating particles, cells will neither decrease
-will not shrink or swell.
digestion begins in?
mouth- mechanics break down and making saliva
-things start to absorb in mouth under tongue
food that has been swolloed
once food is swallowed.
90% absorbtion occurs
absorbs water that is being reabsorbed
chiseled edes that cut
Canines (cuspids) have?
pointed crowns that tear.
Premolars (bicuspids) and molars have?
ridged surfaces that crush and grind
way muscular contraction of gastro tract pushes things along.
Strongest muscles around stomach are?
-goal is to produce a mixture of use of them.
prevents air from getting into esophageal
between esophages and stomach prevent back juice in esophagest.
seperates the acidic from nutral enviroments it always only small amount of chyme
between small and large intest. prevents material from coming back in.
anti acids are?
-form of calcium
Acid reducer are?
-reduce amount of stomach acid
Chronic inflammation and damage of the esophages
What are the 5 organs that produce digestion secretion?
lubricationg the food
start to break down large stach molecules to mono and disacarides.
lipid enzyme involved with tryglycerides with short and mediam chain fatty acids.
What makes up the gasteric juice?
hydrochloric Acid (HCl)
synthesis of hormones
-glucagon and insolin
sythesis and sucreation of digestion enzyme.
97-99% water lubricate to get mixture.
bicarbonate is a?
buffer acid that is coming out of stomach
-stops pepcid from functioning
Zymogens is an active form of?
dont want active till in form of food.
primary amylase that take carbons apart.
gong to cut last a.a. off.
Bile essential for fat digestion (3)
1. ammolsification of fat
2. contains bycarbonate to neutrilies acid
3. route of cholesterial excretion as well as bile acid
primary function of colon is?
Small intestine is the?
crypt is a?
tubular gland that lies between intestinel bili and screts intesten juices
new cells form in?
constently changing and moving
what are the 3 absorption of nutrients?
Simple diffusion is?
things that can move simply in more right through (small lipids and water)
Faciliated diffusion is?
required a carrier. --> changes shape to go into cell. (vitamins)
Active Transport requires?
going agenst concentration gradient. (glucose and a.a.)
What is the thermic affect of food?
contraction of muscles
10% of energy is used to?
Large fat products go to?
lympatic system (do not go to liver first) go to rest of body.
Cells further up better absorbing things?
Cells further down better absorbing things?
The liver is?
everything your body is trying to get out of system.
What is a protein?
a group of compounds composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen arranged into amino acids.
What is a amino acid?
building blocks of protein
What does an amino acid structure look like?
each contain an amino group, an acid group, a hydrogen atom, and a distinctive side group all attached to a central carbon.
Proteins are more complex then carbs because?
they have different side chains on amino acids.
Common structures of an amino acid?
differ in size, shape, electrical charge, and other characteristics which leads to different biological properties.
this changes there function.
What are the essential A.A. and how many?
What are the nonessential A.A. and how many?
how many non essential a.a. are in newborns?
all others are essential until pathways function right.
Phenylalanine is used to make what?
People with PKu cant make tyrosine so its?
conditionally essential for them.
essential you get from?
non-essential you get from?
making it in your body.
Taurine is a?
beta amino acid containing a sulfonyl group.
What are the defficiencies of Taurine?
Taurine is found in significant quantities in what?
they float in body as free amino acid.
Taurine can be made in the?
body but might not have enough so have to eat some.
supplemented in all major infant formulas.
What is deAmination?
a.a. be used for energy but to do so the nitrogen needs to be removed for this process.
What is Amination?
chemical process that your body takes fat and carbs to make a.a.
adding nitrogen group (NH3) to it makes it happen
What is a peptide bond?
the bond that connects the acid end of one a.a. with the amino end of another, forming a link in a protein chain.
- condenstation reaction
What is transamination and synthesis of a nonessential a.a.?
one molecule to another making it from another a.a.
Transform amino group (NH3) from amino acid to keto acid to form a new amino acid and new keto acid.
The nonessential a.a are made involves?
using other a.a.
most protein contains how many a.a.?
a few dozen to several hundred.
poly peptide is a?
what type of peptides can you have?
sequence of a.a. tells them what to do.
uncoiling of a protein
happens when you heat it up
easier to digest
Shape of a protein structure does what?
gives different functions
different structures let them do different things
different side chains on different a.a. have various chemical properties
-water to the inside forces twist and bend in the protein.
what is the role of protein in food?
is not to provide specific body protein directly but to supply the a.a. from which the body can make its own proteins.
hydrochloric does what?
denatures protein activates pepsion.
pepsion does what?
break protein up to small units.
What is protein digestion?
digestion-->AA-->absorption-->blood-->tissues--> make protein that we need.
DNA stands for?
RNA stands for?
step 1 of protein synthesis overview
uncoil DNA and copy it to mRNA
goes on in nucleous then leaves.
protein made from DNA is what makes you?
gene expression is protein expression.
transfer RNA bring a.a to mRNA
have to be in a certain order
tells which one to site down.
translating them into protein.
hemogloben can't carry oxygen well.
proteins are very versatile what 2 things can they do?
facilitate actions in the body and sometimes they are just used.
An enzyme is?
protein that facilitate chemical reactions w/out being changed in the process.
3 jobs of an enzyme are?
1. break down substance
2. make a new substance
3. transform a substance into another
collogen makes up?
most of bone and tissue
building blocks protein in our tissue.
chemical messengers not all hormones are protein but most are.
tell certain part of the body to do something.
Fluid balance is?
control of fluid inside cell and outside of cell
water goes were protein is
with in blood vessels.
3 ways adema occurs?
1. excessive protein due to kidney disease
2. inadiquit protein sithases due to protein
3. inadiquit protein intake
acids release h ions to buffer
protein w/ neg. charge accepts them
different proteins transport all sorts of things.
immunity antigen is?
anything you are exposed to that is not you.
-body makes antibody that are protein.
-these proteins allow you to have immunity
Fibrin is critical for?
opsin is in?
retna of eye (protein) when light hits protein it will change canfirmation ineshats sights
Functions of protein as energy?
protein can be used for energy
can be used to provide energy and glucose.
protein turnover is?
constantly breaking down protein and have to make new ones.
Nitrogen balance is?
in a healthy adult protein sythises equals degrigation and protein intake (dietary) equals nitrogen excrition in feces, sweat, urine
Nitrogen balance is used to?
estimate of protein requirement.
zero nitrogen balance (equilibrium)
Nin > Nout
positive nitrogen balance
body senthesies moves protein then it degreades
: pregnancy and growth (children)
Nin < Nout
negative nitrogen balance
body breaks down more protein then it makes.
: some one starving
how do you Make nonessential a.a.
breaking proteins down out of essiential a.a.
how do you make other compounds?
a.a. tyrosine used to make neurotransmitters
What does energy do in the roles of a.a.?
main way store energy- fat
not bodies intent to store energy as protein
when it is deprived of energy it will use this.
-body will lose lean mass
What are the 2 protein quality?
1. does this provide proper balance of a.a. for body needs
2. is it digestable
Complete protein contains?
All essential a.a. must be provided at the sametime for protein sythesis to occur
- 1 missing, a.a.
Digestibility measures amount of?
amino acids absorbs for a given protein intake.
high quality proteins?
make all essintial amino acids needs in relavent to a human requires.
: meat-red, fish, poultry
Complementary proteins are?
two or more dietary protein that when put together you get all essential a.a.
: beans and rice
reference point is?
a standard protein that meets the essential a.a. requirements of preschool-age children
-egg usually used
Amino acid (chemical) scoring?
compare protein in food to gold standard (egg)
lower chemical score not as good for you.
may not reflect the way the body will use protein.
fails to take into account digestibility of a protein.
Protein digestibility-corrected a.a. score
like a.a. scoring
takes into account digestibility
measures of efficiency of a protein to support the body's needs.
look back over pae 9 in notes
Protein efficiency ratio?
measure weight gain in growing animals compared to its protein intake.
growing animal- feed it source of protein if it grows good source if not can figure out why.
nothing will go in baby food unless it goes through this.
not getting all nutritients they need.
acute energy malnutrition?
PEM caused be a recient event of food restriction
-can tell by normal height thin for height
Chronic energy malnutrition?
long term food depervation
-will be short for age
Health effects of protein?
if you don't have protein and can't make it you will die.
no matter quality of calories not getting enough body will use protein for energy.
Chronic PEM- lack in both energy and protein
-defisiant in almost everything
- impair muscle and brain development
- running on very basis of living life
- body not good at absorbing nutrients
Kwashiorkor is and the infections?
can not make lipoproteins that carry fat from the liver so you end up with a fatty liver.
-no antibodies = increase infection
-increase infection= increase kwashiorkor
- other proteins decrease making them mroe suseptable to infection
Kwashiorkor acute verion of PEM is?
getting enough calorie but not enough protein
-kids will have adema (swelling in abdominal area)
eat nothing to do with animal diet
eat milk based products
eat milk and eggs