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what is the agonist?
- the prime mover
- has major responsibility for a certain movement
what is the antagonist?
opposes or reverses a movement
what is the synergist?
- helps the prime mover by:
- adding extra force
- by reducing undesirable movements
- holding bone in place
what is a fixator?
a type of synergist that holds the bone firmly in place
skeletal muscles are named by?
- relative size
directions of fasciles and muscle fibers their name tells what?
- the direction in which the fibers run
- (external oblique, transverse abdomins)
# of orgins indicated by?
1 ,2 ,3, 4 or by words like biceps triceps and quadriceps
location of attachments name reveals?
the point or origin snd insertion site
is often part of the muscle name.and indicates movement
skeletal muscles contain?
fascicles are arranged in?
fascicle arrangement tells?
about the action of a muscle
they run parallel to the long axis of the muscle
- origin of muscle is broad
- fascicles converge toward the tendon on insertion
- ex: pertoralis major
fascicles insert into one side of the tendon
fascicles insert into the tendon from both sides
fascicles insert inot one large tendon from all sides
fascicles are arranged in concentric rings
- surround external body openings
ex: orbicularis oris and oculi
movement of skeletal muscles involves leverage:
- a rigid bar that moves
- a fixed point
- applied force
bones act as?
joints act as?
provides effort applies force where muslces attaches to bone
bone overlying tissue and anything lifted
levers allow a given effort to?
- move a heavier load
- move a load farther
first class lever (LFE)?
- effort applied at one end
- load is at opposite end
- fulcrum is located between load and effort
ex: seesaw, scissors, lifting head off chest
secons class lever?(FLE)
- effoert applied at one end
- fulcrum at the opposite side
- load is between the effort and fulcrum
- uncommon type in body
- ex: wheelbarrow, or standing on tiptoe
third class lever (LEF)?
- effort applied between the load and the fulcrum
- most skeletal muscles are third class
- ex: biceps brachi
- fulcrum=elbow joint
- effort= forece exerted on the proximal region of the radius
- load= the distal part of the forearm
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