unit 8

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unit 8
2011-05-02 11:53:58

unit 8
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  1. what is the agonist?
    • the prime mover
    • has major responsibility for a certain movement
  2. what is the antagonist?
    opposes or reverses a movement
  3. what is the synergist?
    • helps the prime mover by:
    • adding extra force
    • by reducing undesirable movements
    • holding bone in place
  4. what is a fixator?
    a type of synergist that holds the bone firmly in place
  5. skeletal muscles are named by?
    • location
    • shape
    • relative size
  6. directions of fasciles and muscle fibers their name tells what?
    • the direction in which the fibers run
    • (external oblique, transverse abdomins)
  7. # of orgins indicated by?
    1 ,2 ,3, 4 or by words like biceps triceps and quadriceps
  8. location of attachments name reveals?
    the point or origin snd insertion site
  9. muscle action?
    is often part of the muscle name.and indicates movement

    flexor, extensor
  10. skeletal muscles contain?
  11. fascicles are arranged in?
    diffrent patterns
  12. fascicle arrangement tells?
    about the action of a muscle
  13. fascicles arrangement:

    they run parallel to the long axis of the muscle
  14. fascicle:

    strap like?


    biceps brachi
  15. convergnant?
    • origin of muscle is broad
    • fascicles converge toward the tendon on insertion
    • ex: pertoralis major
  16. unipennate?
    fascicles insert into one side of the tendon
  17. bipennate?
    fascicles insert into the tendon from both sides
  18. multipennate?
    fascicles insert inot one large tendon from all sides
  19. circular?
    fascicles are arranged in concentric rings

    • surround external body openings
    • sphincter

    ex: orbicularis oris and oculi
  20. movement of skeletal muscles involves leverage:

    • a rigid bar that moves
    • a fixed point
    • applied force
    • load
  21. lever systems:

    bones act as?
    joints act as?
    • levers
    • fulcrums
  22. lever systems:

    muscle contractions?
    provides effort applies force where muslces attaches to bone

    bone overlying tissue and anything lifted
  23. levers allow a given effort to?
    • move a heavier load
    • move a load farther
  24. first class lever (LFE)?
    • effort applied at one end
    • load is at opposite end
    • fulcrum is located between load and effort

    ex: seesaw, scissors, lifting head off chest
  25. secons class lever?(FLE)
    • effoert applied at one end
    • fulcrum at the opposite side
    • load is between the effort and fulcrum
    • uncommon type in body
    • ex: wheelbarrow, or standing on tiptoe
  26. third class lever (LEF)?
    • effort applied between the load and the fulcrum
    • most skeletal muscles are third class
    • ex: biceps brachi
    • fulcrum=elbow joint
    • effort= forece exerted on the proximal region of the radius
    • load= the distal part of the forearm