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What are the four major gases that comprise the earth's atmosphere?
- Carbon Dioxide
Which of these gases contributes to the greenhouse effect?
What are the three types of ultraviolet radiation?
Which of the 3 types of UV radiation has the shortest wavelength?
What are the three types of skin cancer we discussed and which is the most common?
- Basal Cell Carcinoma is the most common.
- Squamous Cell Carcinoma
- Malignant Melanoma
In what layer of the atmosphere is the ozone layer?
A motile cell type in the Epidermis of the skin and produces melanin which absorbs UV light.
Define Langerhans cell (in the skin)
Immune system cell, aka macrophages, eats anything that gets through the skin.
Elastic fibers within the skin that keep the skin taut; they break away with age, forming wrinkles.
Cholesterol deposits on the eye from Ultraviolet exposure
Name three greenhouse gases
What are National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)?
NAAQs are the federal standards for harmful air pollutants that are set by the EPA and particularly apply to the 6 criteria pollutants.
Of the six criteria pollutants we discussed, which one is at the highest concentration in urban areas?
What are four effects on oxides of Nitrogen on environmental health?
- Reduces visibility
- Respiratory irritant (Nitric acid)
- Toxic to plants
- Cause acid raid
- Increases susceptibility to Upper Respiratory Tract Infections
Describe the effects of ozone on environmental health.
- Eye irritant
- Respiratory irritant
- Corrosive to building materials
- Reduces lung volume over long exposures
- Toxic to plants
- Cracks rubber, fades paint
Describe the purpose of the spiral canals (nasal turbinates) in the respiratory tract. Which of the six criteria pollutants is affected by these structures?
The purpose is to get the air spinning causing impaction of particulates.
With regard to NAAQS, differentiate between primary standards and secondary standards?
- Primary Standards are set to protect human health and are enforced.
- Secondary Standards are set to protect environmental health and are not typically enforced
What is the tall stack strategy?
Factories would build stacks hundreds of feet tall so that the exhaust would spread over a larger area in an attempt to reduce air pollution.
Although lead is a criteria pollutant, its impact on air quality in Los Angeles is much less now than 30 years ago. What is the primary reason for this improvement?
The use of unleaded gasoline.
Define atomic number
The number of protons in an element
Define atomic mass
The sum of protons and neutrons of an element
An element with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
Define unstable isotope
An element that goes through radioactive decay and emits radiation
Like all atoms of phosphurus, the radioactive isotope P-32 has 15 protons. How many neutrons does this isotope have?
What are the five types of ionizing radiation we discussed?
- Gamma Rays
- Cosmic Rays
Is the average person in the US exposed to more radiation from natural or artificial sources?
What three things result from fission?
- 2 daughter cells; non-identical
- 2 neutrons
- Energy (heat/light)
The most common unit for measuring effective radiation dose in humans is the sievert (Sv). How are sieverts obtained?
Dose of Radiation * Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE)
What is the linear no-threshold theory for radiation exposure?
It states that there is NO safe dose of radation because the curve goes into a linear fashion right down to zero.
What is the primary danger to workers in uranium mines?
Inhalation of radioactive dust
Why is it that a nuclear explosion cannot occur at a nuclear power plant?
Because a thermonuclear explosion requires 98-100% U-135 while power plants operate with only 5-6% U-135.
What is the purpose of control rods in a boiling-water nuclear reactor?
To absorb neutrons and slow down the reactor
What is a Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (MRSF)?
A possible solution for storing radioactive waste & storing it in a matter that it can be monitored and retrieved from the facility if necessary.
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