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east of Suez Canal east of Ural Mountains south of Caucasus Mountains and the Caspian and Black Seas Bounded in the East by the Pacific Ocean south by the Indian Ocean and North by the Arctic
Countries of Asia
Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Burma (Myanmar) Cambodia China Cyprus East Timor Egypt Georgia India Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan North and South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Nepal Oman Pakistan Philippines Qatar Russia Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri Lanka Syria Tajikistan Thailand Turkey Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam and Yemen.
"""the East"" traditionally a designation for anything that belongs to the Eastern word/Far East from the perspective of Europe."
History of Asia
word from Greek Russia strattles on both side Asia was Anatolia east of Turkey
Turkey in Asia
Considered father of History (5th c. BCE) stated three distinct regions: Europa Libya and Asia
core region of the Asian continent from Caspian Sea in the West China east Afghanistan south and Russia north (also called Middle Asia)
China Taiwan Japan North Korea South Korea Mongolia Hong Kong and Macau (Tibet?)
Culturally East Asia
Chinese-speaking regions: China Hong Kong Taiwan Japan Korea and Vietnam
India Pakistan BangladeshBhutan Nepal MaldivesAfghanistan Iran Sri Lanka. Sometimes Myanmar and Tibet Myanma (burma)
south of China east of India and north of Australia.
Mainland Southeast Asia
(Indochina) Cambodia Laos Burma (Myanmar)? Thailand Vietnam and Peninsular Malaysia. South China?
Maritime Southeast Asia
(Malay Archipelago) Brunei East Timor Indonesia the Philipines and Singapore. Geographically-Hong Kong Macau and Taiwan
Western West Southwest or Southwestern Asia
(Middle East) Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Cyprus Georgia Iraq Israel Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Oman Palestine Qatar Saudi Arabia Syria Turkey United Arab Emirates Yemen and Iran.
Russia in Asia
Central Asia Countries
Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Taijkistan Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan
What Year was important in India? Why?
1947 India gain independence
Scientific study of human language. Can be broken into three categories: study of language form of language meaning and of language in context.
Study of language structure/grammar
system of rules followed by the speakers. Morphology syntax phonology and phonetics.
formation and composition of words study of minimal meaningful units of language and their combination
formation and composition of phrases and sentences from words.
sound systems study of sounds as discrete abstract elements in the speaker's mind that distinguish meaning
properties of speech sounds nonspeech sounds and how they are produced and perceived.
Study of language meaning
how languages employ logical structures and real-world references to convey process and assign meaning. Semantics and pragmatics.
how meaning is inferred from words and concepts. Study of relationship betwwen meanings and their expression in human languages
how meaning is inferred from context.
Language in context
evolutionary historical socio psycho neuro language acquisition and discourse analysis.
origins of language
explores language change
relation between linguistic variation and social structures.
explores the representation and funtion of language in the mind
language processing in the brain
how children or adults acquire language
structure of texts and conversations.
general study of signs and symbols within and without language
study the use of language in literature.
a student of language one who studies language. Mistaken as someone who speak many languages fluently.
pairing of meaning and form.
A person who knows or speaks many languages
describing actual language use (synchronic)
describing language use in terms of how some group think it ought to be.
Language use by the speakers
language as percieved by the listeners
Three classification of language
natural vs. artificial spoken vs. written extant vs. extinct
system underlying the shared linguistic competence of some group
system underlying the shared linguistic competence of some defined subgroup
linguistic competence of an individual.
Ferdinand de Saussure. Langue-potential Parole-apply
historically/across time. Study of how languge changes across time.
study of the physical properties of sound waves (branch of physics)
study of sounds from point of view of their physiological production (branch of biology) with regard to their production by the biological organs of the body
study of abstract relations among sounds viewed as a system; combinatorial restrictions among sounds: changes affecting sounds when juxtaposed with one another.
principles governing formation of words and patterns of arrangement of words and groups of words
study of vocabulary
applied discipline of writing dictionaries
study of how sentences and other utterances are strung together to form larger batches of discourse
reconstruction of earlier stages of languages or language families.
language variation as a function of social variables
language variation as a function of geography
language as a function of ethnic groups
smallest segmental unit of sound employed to form meaningful contrasts between utterances
smallest component of a word or other linguistic unit that has semantic meaning.
fundamental unit in a written language
scientific study of linguistic dialect. Studies variations in language based primarily on geographic distribution and their associated features
languages that cannot be plausibly assigned to any language family. No proven relatives
speakers are mutually unintelligible.
speech varieties of a single language
Indonesian and Malaysian - Malay Tagalog and Hawai'ian. Spoken on Taiwan Malaysia Indonesia Philippines and Pacific Islands.
Branch of Austroasiatic. Khmer (Cambodian) Vietnamese
Mon-Khmer and Munda languages of East India. Khmer and Vietnamese. Spoken on peninsular of SE Asia.
Branch of Sino-Tibetan. Tibetan and Burmese Newari Bodo Manipuri
Tibeto-Burman and Sinitic -Chinese. Spoken in China Tibet Burma and NE India
Features of Austronesian
abundant morphology using affixes of all kinds(prefixes suffixes infixes circumfixes) reduplication to build up complex words from simpler ones and inclusive/exclusive distinction in plural pronouns ex: there are two words for 'we'
Features of Mon-Khmer
"large vowel inventories systems with four degrees of vowel height several series of vowels differing according to ""voice register"" or phonation type and have a complete set of stops and nasals in labial alveolar palatal and velar positions few fricatives."
Features of Sino-Tibetan
Tonal and monosyllabic words few initial clusters/final consonants complex tone systems classifiers serial verb constructions and have postposition rather than prepositions.
Thai and Lao. Spoken in Southern China Thailand and Laos.
Features of Tai-Kadai
sizeable number of tones little or no inflection. Compounding and reduplication are the most common types of derivational processes.
Hmong and Mien. Spoken in Southern China and northern parts of SE Asia (Vietnam Thailand and Laos).
Features of Hmong-Mien
tonal and many complex consonant clusters lack of inflection presence of numeral classifiers widespread ellipsis serial verb constructions abundance of sentence particles tone languages and retroflex and uvular places of articulation prenasalized aspirated and glottalized stops and voiceless sonorants
tones and classifiers little or no inflection SVO in word order and have both prepositions and postpositions.
Language Isolate spoken in norther Japan
Korean and Japanese
some say they are related to each other some say they belong to Altaic Language family.
"Mongolian and Uighur. Mongolic Tungusic and Turkic languages. Spoken in Mongolia NW China ""stans"" and Turkey"
Features of Altaic
Simple syllables and vowel harmony
government: what's official language and language policy
attempt to keep language going ex. Vietnamese in America 2nd and 3rd generation
what works in the study of language
Indo-European. Have three branches: Iranian Indo-Aryan and Nuristani.
Verdic Sanskrit Classical Sanskrit
Pali Prakrit Gandhari Apabhramsha
New Indo Aryan
c. 1000 CE Hindi Urdu Sindhi Nepali
Tamil Telugu Malayalam Kannada
(Austroasiatic) approx two dozen tribal languages incl. Santali and Mundari
(Indio-Iranian branch of Indo-European) Persian Dari Tajik Pashto Baluchi
Other Colonial languages spoken in South Asia
Indo-European: English French Portuguese Dutch. Semitic: Arabic
Arabic Hebrew and Ethiopic languages
Assyrian Ugartic Aramaic Koranic Arabic and Biblical Hebrew
Iranian and Indo-Aryan
Old Persian(600-300BCE) and Avestan (1000CE)
(3rd cent. BCE-8th cent. CE) Parthian Sogdian Bactrian and Saka and Pahlavi
Persian(Farsi) Pashto Baluchi Dari Tajik and Kurdish
language isolate in South Asia
positionally determined variants of phonemes
two words that differ by a single phoneme (ex. Bit/pit)
having to do with sounds only with regard to their status as phonemes (i.e. with regard to their ability to differentiate meaning)
having to do with sounds with regard to their physiological production.
Where does speech come from and which direction is it going?
What's happening at the larynx and at the vocal bands?
Is the passage way leading to the nasal cavity open or closed?
What happens in the oral cavity and where exactly in the oral cavity does it happen?
If the airflow gets blocked what happens after the blockage is realeased?
Where does the air come from?
Which direction is the air flowing?
Ingressive vs. egressive
Vocal bands loosely together
Vocal bands open
vocal bands tightly together
Velic closure open
Velic closure closed
Airflow blocked in some manner
Airflow completely unobstructed
Speech sounds that blurs the distinction between consonants and vowels
Airflow completely blocked
"Airflow run through narrow passage way
thus generating friction"
Airflow blocked in mouth but passage way through nasal cavities open
Some part of articulatory apparatus set into vibration
Air blocked at center of articulatory tract but diverted to side
bottom lip and teeth or various regions of the tongue
top lip and teeth alveolar ridge hard palate soft palate velum uvula and the pharynx
Organ of the body housing the vocal bands is known as
"Part of the mouth that ""hangs"" over the back of the throat and either allows or blocks passage of the air stream to the nasal cavities"
Blocked air is released with a noticeable puff of air exiting the mouth
Blocked air is dispersed within the oral cavity without a noticable puff of air existing the mouth
"""steady-state"" vowel pronunciation"
vowel sounds have change during pronunciation
a E e i
a c o u
contextually determined variants of a morpheme
base form of a word which cannot be further analyzed without a loss of identity
morpheme can only be used when attached to the beginning end or inside a base. Three main types: prefixes suffixes infixes
pertains to all forms within a grammatical class. Incl. paradigms. Conjugation of verbs: declension of nouns adjectives pronouns.
serves to transform a word from one functional class (i.e. part of speech) to another
that to which an affix is attached is known as
can occur as independent word
can ONLY occur linked to some other morphem
(isolating) all words are invariable and syntactic relationships are shown mostly by word order
words consist of more than one morpheme but there is no one-to-one relationship between morphemes and meanings or functions
each word contains a linear sequence of morphemes with each morpheme having a single meaning or function
"Subject-Object-Verb (ex. ""Hansan the ox bought"""
Ex. The athlete broke the record
Ex. Killed the dragon the man
Ex. Saw the student the woman
basic building blocks of vocabulary
study of word origins
study of the origins of names
reconstruction of an earlier language based upon the comparison of data from more than one language believed to be descended from the earlier language
reconstruction of an earlier language based upon the comparison of data from only later stages of the language in question
Sir William Jones
"(1746-1794) English judge learns Sanskrit to learn ""Hindu laws"". Concludes Latin Greek and Sanskrit must have derived from a common precursor language. Sets in motion the start of the ""Indo-European"" family"
"(1785-1863) German polymath and scholar of law culture folklore and language. With brother Wilhelm compiled diction of the German language wrote history of German folklore and compiled ""Grimm's Fairy Tales"""
scientific study of writing systems
positionally determined variants of graphemes
relationship between graphemes in a given writing system and basic elements in the language represented by the writing system.
writing system in which graphemes represent individual sounds
writing system in which graphemes represents syllables
writing systems in which graphemes represent entire words
(consonant alphabets) consonants only/consonants plus some vowels.
(alphsyllabaries) writing systems in which the words are formed from linear sequences of symbols standing for entire syllable but where each sign can be analyzed into components standing for the sounds that comprise the syllable.
derivatives of an ancient syllabry (Indian)
an acient syllabary used in North-west India
a line drawn on a map/other figure to separate the alternatives of some linguistic variable
a speech variety shared by some definable group within a language community
any linguistic feature that varies within a language dialect or a single person's speech