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2011-05-02 12:38:49
Asian Language Literature

Asian Language & Literature
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  1. Asia
    east of Suez Canal east of Ural Mountains south of Caucasus Mountains and the Caspian and Black Seas Bounded in the East by the Pacific Ocean south by the Indian Ocean and North by the Arctic
  2. Countries of Asia
    Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Burma (Myanmar) Cambodia China Cyprus East Timor Egypt Georgia India Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan North and South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Nepal Oman Pakistan Philippines Qatar Russia Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri Lanka Syria Tajikistan Thailand Turkey Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam and Yemen.
  3. Orient
    """the East"" traditionally a designation for anything that belongs to the Eastern word/Far East from the perspective of Europe."
  4. History of Asia
    word from Greek Russia strattles on both side Asia was Anatolia east of Turkey
  5. Anatolia
    Turkey in Asia
  6. Herodotus
    Considered father of History (5th c. BCE) stated three distinct regions: Europa Libya and Asia
  7. Central Asia
    core region of the Asian continent from Caspian Sea in the West China east Afghanistan south and Russia north (also called Middle Asia)
  8. East Asia
    China Taiwan Japan North Korea South Korea Mongolia Hong Kong and Macau (Tibet?)
  9. Culturally East Asia
    Chinese-speaking regions: China Hong Kong Taiwan Japan Korea and Vietnam
  10. South Asia
    India Pakistan BangladeshBhutan Nepal MaldivesAfghanistan Iran Sri Lanka. Sometimes Myanmar and Tibet Myanma (burma)
  11. Southeast Asia
    south of China east of India and north of Australia.
  12. Mainland Southeast Asia
    (Indochina) Cambodia Laos Burma (Myanmar)? Thailand Vietnam and Peninsular Malaysia. South China?
  13. Maritime Southeast Asia
    (Malay Archipelago) Brunei East Timor Indonesia the Philipines and Singapore. Geographically-Hong Kong Macau and Taiwan
  14. Western West Southwest or Southwestern Asia
    (Middle East) Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Cyprus Georgia Iraq Israel Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Oman Palestine Qatar Saudi Arabia Syria Turkey United Arab Emirates Yemen and Iran.
  15. North Asia
    Russia in Asia
  16. Central Asia Countries
    Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Taijkistan Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan
  17. What Year was important in India? Why?
    1947 India gain independence
  18. Linguistics
    Scientific study of human language. Can be broken into three categories: study of language form of language meaning and of language in context.
  19. Study of language structure/grammar
    system of rules followed by the speakers. Morphology syntax phonology and phonetics.
  20. Morphology
    formation and composition of words study of minimal meaningful units of language and their combination
  21. Syntax
    formation and composition of phrases and sentences from words.
  22. Phonology
    sound systems study of sounds as discrete abstract elements in the speaker's mind that distinguish meaning
  23. Phonetics
    properties of speech sounds nonspeech sounds and how they are produced and perceived.
  24. Study of language meaning
    how languages employ logical structures and real-world references to convey process and assign meaning. Semantics and pragmatics.
  25. Semantics
    how meaning is inferred from words and concepts. Study of relationship betwwen meanings and their expression in human languages
  26. Pragmatics
    how meaning is inferred from context.
  27. Language in context
    evolutionary historical socio psycho neuro language acquisition and discourse analysis.
  28. Evolutionary Linguistics
    origins of language
  29. Historical linguistics
    explores language change
  30. sociolinguistics
    relation between linguistic variation and social structures.
  31. psycholinguistics
    explores the representation and funtion of language in the mind
  32. neurolinguistics
    language processing in the brain
  33. language acquisition
    how children or adults acquire language
  34. discourse analysis
    structure of texts and conversations.
  35. Semiotics
    general study of signs and symbols within and without language
  36. Literary theorists
    study the use of language in literature.
  37. Linguist
    a student of language one who studies language. Mistaken as someone who speak many languages fluently.
  38. Saussurean sign
    pairing of meaning and form.
  39. Polyglot
    A person who knows or speaks many languages
  40. Descriptive Linguistics
    describing actual language use (synchronic)
  41. Prescriptive linguistics
    describing language use in terms of how some group think it ought to be.
  42. Production
    Language use by the speakers
  43. Perception
    language as percieved by the listeners
  44. Three classification of language
    natural vs. artificial spoken vs. written extant vs. extinct
  45. Language
    system underlying the shared linguistic competence of some group
  46. Dialect
    system underlying the shared linguistic competence of some defined subgroup
  47. Idiolect
    linguistic competence of an individual.
  48. Langue/Parole distinction
    Ferdinand de Saussure. Langue-potential Parole-apply
  49. Competence/Performance distinction
    Noam Chomsky. Competence-ability Performance-exercising
  50. Synchronically
    fixed point
  51. Diachronically
    historically/across time. Study of how languge changes across time.
  52. Acoustic Phonetics
    study of the physical properties of sound waves (branch of physics)
  53. Articulatory Phonetics
    study of sounds from point of view of their physiological production (branch of biology) with regard to their production by the biological organs of the body
  54. Phonology Proper
    study of abstract relations among sounds viewed as a system; combinatorial restrictions among sounds: changes affecting sounds when juxtaposed with one another.
  55. Grammar
    principles governing formation of words and patterns of arrangement of words and groups of words
  56. Lexicology
    study of vocabulary
  57. Lexicography
    applied discipline of writing dictionaries
  58. Discourse Grammar
    study of how sentences and other utterances are strung together to form larger batches of discourse
  59. Linguistic Reconstruction
    reconstruction of earlier stages of languages or language families.
  60. Socio-linguistics
    language variation as a function of social variables
  61. Dialect Geography
    language variation as a function of geography
  62. Anthropological linguistics
    language as a function of ethnic groups
  63. Phoneme
    smallest segmental unit of sound employed to form meaningful contrasts between utterances
  64. Morpheme
    smallest component of a word or other linguistic unit that has semantic meaning.
  65. Grapheme
    fundamental unit in a written language
  66. Dialectology
    scientific study of linguistic dialect. Studies variations in language based primarily on geographic distribution and their associated features
  67. Language Isolates
    languages that cannot be plausibly assigned to any language family. No proven relatives
  68. Languages
    speakers are mutually unintelligible.
  69. Dialects
    speech varieties of a single language
  70. Austronesian
    Indonesian and Malaysian - Malay Tagalog and Hawai'ian. Spoken on Taiwan Malaysia Indonesia Philippines and Pacific Islands.
  71. Mon-Khmer
    Branch of Austroasiatic. Khmer (Cambodian) Vietnamese
  72. Austroasiatic
    Mon-Khmer and Munda languages of East India. Khmer and Vietnamese. Spoken on peninsular of SE Asia.
  73. Tibeto-Burman
    Branch of Sino-Tibetan. Tibetan and Burmese Newari Bodo Manipuri
  74. Sino-Tibetan
    Tibeto-Burman and Sinitic -Chinese. Spoken in China Tibet Burma and NE India
  75. Features of Austronesian
    abundant morphology using affixes of all kinds(prefixes suffixes infixes circumfixes) reduplication to build up complex words from simpler ones and inclusive/exclusive distinction in plural pronouns ex: there are two words for 'we'
  76. Features of Mon-Khmer
    "large vowel inventories systems with four degrees of vowel height several series of vowels differing according to ""voice register"" or phonation type and have a complete set of stops and nasals in labial alveolar palatal and velar positions few fricatives."
  77. Features of Sino-Tibetan
    Tonal and monosyllabic words few initial clusters/final consonants complex tone systems classifiers serial verb constructions and have postposition rather than prepositions.
  78. Tai-Kadai
    Thai and Lao. Spoken in Southern China Thailand and Laos.
  79. Features of Tai-Kadai
    sizeable number of tones little or no inflection. Compounding and reduplication are the most common types of derivational processes.
  80. Hmong-Mien
    Hmong and Mien. Spoken in Southern China and northern parts of SE Asia (Vietnam Thailand and Laos).
  81. Features of Hmong-Mien
    tonal and many complex consonant clusters lack of inflection presence of numeral classifiers widespread ellipsis serial verb constructions abundance of sentence particles tone languages and retroflex and uvular places of articulation prenasalized aspirated and glottalized stops and voiceless sonorants
  82. Sinitic
    tones and classifiers little or no inflection SVO in word order and have both prepositions and postpositions.
  83. Ainu
    Language Isolate spoken in norther Japan
  84. Korean and Japanese
    some say they are related to each other some say they belong to Altaic Language family.
  85. Altaic
    "Mongolian and Uighur. Mongolic Tungusic and Turkic languages. Spoken in Mongolia NW China ""stans"" and Turkey"
  86. Features of Altaic
    Simple syllables and vowel harmony
  87. Language Planning
    government: what's official language and language policy
  88. Language maintenance
    attempt to keep language going ex. Vietnamese in America 2nd and 3rd generation
  89. First Language
    native language
  90. Language pedagogy
    what works in the study of language
  91. Indo-Iranian
    Indo-European. Have three branches: Iranian Indo-Aryan and Nuristani.
  92. Old Indo-Aryan
    Verdic Sanskrit Classical Sanskrit
  93. Middle Indo-Aryan
    Pali Prakrit Gandhari Apabhramsha
  94. New Indo Aryan
    c. 1000 CE Hindi Urdu Sindhi Nepali
  95. Dravidian
    Tamil Telugu Malayalam Kannada
  96. Munda
    (Austroasiatic) approx two dozen tribal languages incl. Santali and Mundari
  97. Iranian
    (Indio-Iranian branch of Indo-European) Persian Dari Tajik Pashto Baluchi
  98. Arabic
  99. Other Colonial languages spoken in South Asia
    Indo-European: English French Portuguese Dutch. Semitic: Arabic
  100. Modern Semitic
    Arabic Hebrew and Ethiopic languages
  101. Ancient Semitic
    Assyrian Ugartic Aramaic Koranic Arabic and Biblical Hebrew
  102. Indo-Iranian subbranches
    Iranian and Indo-Aryan
  103. Old Iranian
    Old Persian(600-300BCE) and Avestan (1000CE)
  104. Midle Iranian
    (3rd cent. BCE-8th cent. CE) Parthian Sogdian Bactrian and Saka and Pahlavi
  105. New Iranian
    Persian(Farsi) Pashto Baluchi Dari Tajik and Kurdish
  106. Burushaski
    language isolate in South Asia
  107. Allophones
    positionally determined variants of phonemes
  108. Minimal pair
    two words that differ by a single phoneme (ex. Bit/pit)
  109. Phonemic
    having to do with sounds only with regard to their status as phonemes (i.e. with regard to their ability to differentiate meaning)
  110. Phonetic
    having to do with sounds with regard to their physiological production.
  111. Where does speech come from and which direction is it going?
    Air flow
  112. What's happening at the larynx and at the vocal bands?
  113. Is the passage way leading to the nasal cavity open or closed?
  114. What happens in the oral cavity and where exactly in the oral cavity does it happen?
  115. If the airflow gets blocked what happens after the blockage is realeased?
  116. Where does the air come from?
  117. Which direction is the air flowing?
    Ingressive vs. egressive
  118. Glottal
    laryngeal mechanisms
  119. Vocal bands loosely together
  120. Vocal bands open
  121. vocal bands tightly together
    glottal stop
  122. Velic closure open
    nasal sounds
  123. Velic closure closed
    non-nasal=oral sounds
  124. Airflow blocked in some manner
  125. Airflow completely unobstructed
  126. Speech sounds that blurs the distinction between consonants and vowels
  127. Airflow completely blocked
  128. "Airflow run through narrow passage way
    thus generating friction"
  129. Airflow blocked in mouth but passage way through nasal cavities open
    nasal consonants
  130. Some part of articulatory apparatus set into vibration
  131. Air blocked at center of articulatory tract but diverted to side
  132. Bottom articulators
    bottom lip and teeth or various regions of the tongue
  133. Top articulators
    top lip and teeth alveolar ridge hard palate soft palate velum uvula and the pharynx
  134. Organ of the body housing the vocal bands is known as
  135. "Part of the mouth that ""hangs"" over the back of the throat and either allows or blocks passage of the air stream to the nasal cavities"
  136. Lips
  137. Teeth
  138. Alveolar ridge
  139. Hard palate
  140. Soft palate
  141. Uvula
  142. Pharynx
  143. Glottis
  144. Blocked air is released with a noticeable puff of air exiting the mouth
    Aspirate consonants
  145. Blocked air is dispersed within the oral cavity without a noticable puff of air existing the mouth
    Non-aspirate consonants
  146. """steady-state"" vowel pronunciation"
  147. vowel sounds have change during pronunciation
  148. Front vowels
    a E e i
  149. Back vowels
    a c o u
  150. Allomorphs
    contextually determined variants of a morpheme
  151. Root
    base form of a word which cannot be further analyzed without a loss of identity
  152. Affix
    morpheme can only be used when attached to the beginning end or inside a base. Three main types: prefixes suffixes infixes
  153. Inflectional
    pertains to all forms within a grammatical class. Incl. paradigms. Conjugation of verbs: declension of nouns adjectives pronouns.
  154. Derivational
    serves to transform a word from one functional class (i.e. part of speech) to another
  155. that to which an affix is attached is known as
  156. Free morpheme
    can occur as independent word
  157. Bound morpheme
    can ONLY occur linked to some other morphem
  158. Analytic
    (isolating) all words are invariable and syntactic relationships are shown mostly by word order
  159. Inflexional
    words consist of more than one morpheme but there is no one-to-one relationship between morphemes and meanings or functions
  160. Agglutinating
    each word contains a linear sequence of morphemes with each morpheme having a single meaning or function
  161. SOV
    "Subject-Object-Verb (ex. ""Hansan the ox bought"""
  162. SVO
    Ex. The athlete broke the record
  163. VSO
    Ex. Killed the dragon the man
  164. VOS
    Ex. Saw the student the woman
  165. Lexeme
    basic building blocks of vocabulary
  166. Etymology
    study of word origins
  167. Onomastics
    study of the origins of names
  168. Comparative Reconstruction
    reconstruction of an earlier language based upon the comparison of data from more than one language believed to be descended from the earlier language
  169. Internal Reconstruction
    reconstruction of an earlier language based upon the comparison of data from only later stages of the language in question
  170. Sir William Jones
    "(1746-1794) English judge learns Sanskrit to learn ""Hindu laws"". Concludes Latin Greek and Sanskrit must have derived from a common precursor language. Sets in motion the start of the ""Indo-European"" family"
  171. Jakob Grimm
    "(1785-1863) German polymath and scholar of law culture folklore and language. With brother Wilhelm compiled diction of the German language wrote history of German folklore and compiled ""Grimm's Fairy Tales"""
  172. Grammatology
    scientific study of writing systems
  173. Allographs
    positionally determined variants of graphemes
  174. Fit
    relationship between graphemes in a given writing system and basic elements in the language represented by the writing system.
  175. Writing system
    orthography/orthographic system/script
  176. Alphabet
    writing system in which graphemes represent individual sounds
  177. Syllabary
    writing system in which graphemes represents syllables
  178. Logographic
    writing systems in which graphemes represent entire words
  179. Abjads
    (consonant alphabets) consonants only/consonants plus some vowels.
  180. Abugidas
    (alphsyllabaries) writing systems in which the words are formed from linear sequences of symbols standing for entire syllable but where each sign can be analyzed into components standing for the sounds that comprise the syllable.
  181. Brahmi
    derivatives of an ancient syllabry (Indian)
  182. Kharosthi
    an acient syllabary used in North-west India
  183. Isogloss
    a line drawn on a map/other figure to separate the alternatives of some linguistic variable
  184. Dialect
    a speech variety shared by some definable group within a language community
  185. Linguistic Variable
    any linguistic feature that varies within a language dialect or a single person's speech
  186. Three Linguistic Variables
    Social Regional and Functional