General Foundations

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jonobatten
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General Foundations
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2011-05-02 13:06:25
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General Foundations Psychology
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  1. Risky Shift Phenomenon
    This occurs when people are in a group. There are more more likely to take higher risk than they would as an individual, as the shared risk makes the individual risk less.
  2. Babbling Facilitation
    Babbling is repetition of consonant- vowel combinations in long strings, starts at about 6 months. Faciliatation may be repeating the child sounds in games and play with variations for them to imitate
  3. Post-conventional Moral Development
    The first of Kholberg's stages of moral development (think near death woman and drug company break in parable). This stage involves obediance and punishment orientation (there is a fixed set of rules) and then individualism and exchange (there is not just one right view). The following key stages are Conventional Moral Development and the Post-conventional Moral Development.
  4. Internalisation
    This is a process by which an individual comes to accept the beliefs of a group as the norm and accept them.
  5. Monocular Cues
    Part of depth-perception is the ability to perceive the distance of an object. There are a variety of things that we use to judge how far away an object is. Some of these cues can be processed by just one eye, which is why they are referred to as monocular cues. (Think never ending staircase etc)
  6. Multi-store Model
    A memory model developed by Atkinson and Shiffrin model. This model shows that information is brought into the STM and rehearesed which then leads to LTM, or it is not rehearsed and decays.
  7. Classical Conditioning
    A form of associative learning that involves a neutral stimulus being presented with a significant stumulus. Making the neural stimuls conditioned. Pavlovs Dogs etc
  8. Conservation
    From Piaget, understanding that the size or quantity of a substance is not changed by spacing or visable change in appearance.
  9. Social Facilitation
    This is were people when watched will do better on simple tasks but worse on more complex ones than if not watched or in a group.
  10. Bottom Up Processing
    Bottom-up processing is also known as "small chunk" processing and suggests that we attend to or perceive elements by starting with the smaller, more fine details of that element and then building upward until we have a solid representation of it in our minds. (Details vs Overal Concept)
  11. Imprinting
    A form of learning in which a very young animal fixes its attention on the first object with which it has visual, auditory, or tactile experience and thereafter follows that object. In nature the object is almost invariably a parent; in experiments, other animals and inanimate objects have been used.
  12. Strange Situation
    A procedure designed to test a child's attachment. This involves interaction with a stranger both with and without the mother. This was developed by Mary Ainsworth.
  13. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
    A theory that suggests we are more likely to forfil basic needs before moving on to other needs. This is divided into 5 levels. 1/ Psyiological Needs, 2/ Security Needs, 3/ Social Needs, 4/ Esteem Needs, 5/ Self-Actualising Needs.
  14. Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
    Developed by Sternburg, this is an intelligence theory, Divided into three components 1. Analytical Subtheory, 2/ Creative Subtheory, 3/ Contextual Subtheory. This was a more cognitive aproach to intelligence theory as oposed to psychometric.
  15. Bipolar Disorder
    A form of depression characterised by both mania and depression, there is a significant genetic component. Treatment is with lithium.
  16. Visual Agnosia
    This is where brain damage or disease has caused the secondary processing of visual stimulus to fail. Characterised by inability to recognise faces, replicate drawing e.t.c
  17. Proactive Interference
    Interference to memory, this is caused when old learning interferes with newly learnt information. (note that if the information is not similar there is little or no interference, also there needs to be some incompatibility within the materials).
  18. Social Loafing
    The tendency to exert less effort on a task when working as part of a cooperative group than when working on one's own. (A part of social psychology)
  19. Reconstructive Memory
    This is a model of memory, this is remembering a series of stimuli in the order it was presented. (opposed by free recall where order is not required).
  20. Sternburgs Triarchic Model
    This is an intelligence theory, Divided into three components 1. Analytical Subtheory, 2/ Creative Subtheory, 3/ Contextual Subtheory. This was a more cognitive aproach to intelligence theory as oposed to psychometric.
  21. Zone of Proximal Development
    A Vygotsky theory, this is the difference between what an individual can do alone vs in a group. (the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance, or in collaboration with more capable peers).
  22. Assimilation/ Accommodation
    Piaget theory of adaption/learning. Assimilation is applying pre existing knowledge to a situation (i.e he has a tattoo, all people with tattoos are bad). Accommodation is changing an action in response to the environment (in speaking with the man with tattoos i realise that not all tattooed people are bad).
  23. Neglect Syndrome
    Is a neuropsychological condition in which, after damage to one hemisphere of the brain, a deficit in attention to and awareness of one side of space is observed. (Often contraleteral)
  24. Negitive Triad
    The theory developed by Beck, around depression. He belived that depressed people had a negative schemas of the world. And that they had a negative triad, have negative thoughts of 1/ themselves, 2/ there experiences in the world 3/ the future. (I didnt get the job because 1/ I am no good at interviews 2/ the interviewer didnt like me 3/ no-one will ever want to hire me). This is a significant part of CBT
  25. Dissociative Fugue
    This is when a period of reversable amnesia occurs often following a trauma. The individual often loses identity, memories do return but often the fugue is forgotten.
  26. Blindsight
    A term used to indicate someone who is totally blind but yet is able, unconsciously, to locate an object on the basis of visual cues. It indicates a lesion which has destroyed the visual cortex but in which the retinotectal pathway to the superior colliculus remains unaffected. This pathway is not involved in conscious vision but receives some information from the retina.
  27. Defence Mechanisim
    Freudian idea, a coping mechanisim of the ego for the anxiety caused by the id, super-ego and reality. There a many but common ones are Denial, repression and supression.
  28. Phoneme
    Phonemes are sets of basic sounds (in fact, the smallest set of sounds) that are the building blocks to all spoken language. Unlike morphemes, phonemes are not units of speech that convey meaning when used in isolation
  29. Entiativity
    This is observing a group as a single/pure entity and not attending to the individuals. Often looking at families or intimate groups this is the unity and coherence that occurs.
  30. Attachment Style
    This was the categories developed by Mary Ainsworth who studies attachment patterns, they were secure, anxious-avoidant (insecure) and anxious-ambivalent or resistant (insecure). This is linked to the strange situation experiment.
  31. Superego
    A Freudian construct, works within the conscious and unconscious mind along side the id, and the ego. The super-ego is the inner parent, a type of conscience that punishes bad behaviour with guilt.
  32. Factor Analysis
    A statistical procedure that identifies clusters or groups of related items. This acts to reduce variables and observe patterns.
  33. 5-factor model
    A personality model developed by McCrae and Costa, comprised of five dimensions (OCEAN). Openness to experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticisim.
  34. Attachment Disorders
    Following from Bowlby and then Ainsworth attachment disorders are when a child fails to form secure attachments in the early years. Often found with children who are diagnosed with ODD (oppositional defiant disorder), CD (conduct disorder) and PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder). This is often caused by abuse, neglect and trauma in the early years.
  35. Systematic Desensitisation
    This is a part of the behavioural therapy, this is where the least threatening form of an object is presented to a person who has a phobia of that thing, they are taught relaxation skills and use them when presented with the form of anxiety or phobia. The idea being if you are relaxed you cannot be afraid.
  36. Infant-Directed Speech
    Often called 'motherese' is a non standard form of communication used by adults on babies and toddlers. Often characterised by high tones and shortened words with a cooing pattern of intonation.
  37. Crystallised Intelligence
    This is a form of intelligence, this is the accrual of knowledge and skills over a lifetime.
  38. Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy (CBT)
    Cognitive therapy or cognitive behavioural therapy is a kind of psychotherapy used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, phobias, and other forms of mental disorder. It involves recognising distorted thinking and learning to replace it with more realistic substitute ideas
  39. Encoding Specificity
    This is where the context of learning something affects how it is encoded in memory. Shows that we are best when tested in the same way that we learned.
  40. Self-Actualisation
    A part of Maslows hierarchy of needs, This is where you realise your potential through creativity, independence and grasp of the world.
  41. Kin Selection
    This is an evolutionary theory that we are more likely to help people who are blood relatives and this increases the odds of the genes continuing to future generations. The closer the blood relative the more likely you are to help.
  42. Oedipus Complex
    A Freudian theory that happens during the phallic stage of development (3-6). This is where the son id desires to be with his mother and feels jealousy towards the father. Although a fear of castration keeps the boy abivilent about his fathers place in the family.
  43. Proactive Interference
    Interference to memory, this is caused when old learning interferes with newly learnt information. (note that if the information is not similar there is little or no interference, also there needs to be some incompatibility within the materials).
  44. Social Proof
    A social phenomenon where people assume that the actions of others correctly reflect the correct behaviour in a situation. This is a part of social influence theory, (think the people facing the wrong way in a lift).
  45. Balint’s Syndrome
    A group of visual symptoms characterized by simultaneous anagnosia and optic ataxia. The patient experiences nystagmus, or loss of control of eye movements, and the inability to perceive all parts of a scene simultaneously. The patient may begin to follow a moving object but lose it. The cause is bilateral disease of the parietotemporal areas of the brain.
  46. Reductionism
    This is a criticism of some scientific studies where in order the understand the whole they are reduced to the interactions of their parts.
  47. Accommodation
    A part of Piaget's theory of learning. Accommodation is the changing of an action in response to an environment. For example in speaking to a criminal i now realise that they are not all murderers.
  48. Episodic Memory
    This is a form of long term memory where autobiographical events are remembered. This contains times, places, emotions and other contextual knowledge.
  49. Factor Analysis
    A statistical procedure that identifies clusters or groups of related items. This acts to reduce variables and observe patterns.
  50. Photoreceptors
    A photosensitive cell that is in the retina. They are made up of rod and cone cells which take light and convert it into electrical impulses which are sent to the Central Nervous system.
  51. Superego
    A Freudian construct, works within the conscious and unconscious mind along side the id, and the ego. The super-ego is the inner parent, a type of conscience that punishes bad behaviour with guilt.
  52. Procedural memory
    A form of long term memory, and more specifically implicit memory. This is how we remeber how to do things, both cognitive and motor skills.
  53. Cocktail Party Effect
    This is the ability to tune your ear to a singer persons voice in the midst of a room of people talking. It is a area of study within attention.
  54. Trait Theories
    A part of the study of personality. Trait theories study characteristics of people that make them behave in certain ways. These characteristics are patterns of thinking and behaviour that predispose a person to a certain way of thinking and acting.
  55. Agentic State
    From Milgram's study, this is where people give up there free will to follow instructions or serve the needs of society. This shift in responsibility means we no longer monitor our own behaviour.
  56. Gestalt Psychology
    This is a theory of mind that views it as a single entity. The whole is greater than the sum of the parts. (i,e we look at person not a finger nail, then finger etc).
  57. Conservation of Volume Task
    A Piagetian experiment where children in the pre-operational stage of development look at the shape of the container as an indicator of volume (i.e. a tall and skinny glass contains more liquid than a short and fat one) despite seeing the liquid decanted between the glasses.
  58. Informational Social Conformity
    This is a part of the Social Impact theory. This is where because of the ambiguous nature of the situation a person relies on the group to attain accurate information.
  59. Scaffolding
    This was a cognivitve theory by Bruner that is when an adults interactions with a child help a child to develop.
  60. MZ Twins
    Monozygotic twins, these are twins who formed from one egg and sperm that split. Also called identical twins they a genetically identical. Important in psychological study when compared to DZ twins when looking at heritability.
  61. Flooding
    A behavioural therapy often used for phobias. Based on the belief that a phobia is a learnt fear and that a way to unlearned by exposure to the thin you fear. This aims to link past repressed emotions with current awareness. This is quite traumatic.
  62. Strange Situation Experiment
    An experiment conducted by Mary Ainsworth. This was an experiment in attachment. It involved observing a child's reaction when with its mother, then with its mother and a stranger, then just with the stranger and then the mothers return.
  63. Retroactive Interference
    Interference to memory, this is caused when new learning interferes with previously learnt information. (note that if the information is not similar there is little or no interference, also there needs to be some incompatibility within the materials).
  64. Environment of Evolutionary Adaptation
    Often called the EEA, this is the environment to which a species has adapted. This is the adaptions made over time to adapt to an environment.

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